collar, and professional workers, they are not distinguished from other special interest groups in this chapter. It is also acknowledged that unions, when ethnically
constituted, also have abetted machine politics. Further, it is important to note that
the negative connotations associated with special interest politics is a relatively recent phenomenon.
It is important to note that the city's shrinking tax base, deindustrialization,
shifting demographics, and job loss also contributed to the erosion of legislators'
abilities to earmark resources for their demographic constituencies.
For a comprehensive analysis of African Americans and patronage, see
See John J. Harrigan, 1985, pp. 5, 376-377; James L. Sundquist, Making Federalism Work: A Study of Program Coordination at the Community Level ( Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1969), pp. 3-5; and John A. Weicher, Urban Renewal:
National Program for Local Problems ( Washington, D.C.: AEI, 1972), p. 6.
I do not mean to minimize the significant role that white voters also played
in dismantling patronage here. See Shakman v. Democratic Organization of Cook
County et al. The Shakman decree of 1972 prohibits the firing of local government
employees on political grounds.
See Rufus Browning,
Dale Marshall, and
David Tabb, Racial Politics in
American Cities ( New York: Longman, 1990); William Grimshaw, 1992; and Adolph Reed Jr.
, Jesse Jackson Phenomenon ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986).
Banfield Edward C., and
James Q. Wilson. 1963. City Politics. New York: Vintage
Bentley Arthur Fisher. 1908. The Process of Government: A Study of Social Pressures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cain Bruce. 1992. "Voting Rights and Democratic Theory: Toward a Color-Blind
Society." In Controversies in Minority Voting, edited by
Chandler Davidson. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
Dye Thomas. 1987. Understanding Public Policy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice
Elkins Stephen L. 1987. City and Regime in the American Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Erie Steven. 1988. Rainbow's End: Irish-Americans and the Dilemmas of Urban
Machine Politics, 1840-1985. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Greider William. 1992. Who Will Tell the People: Betrayal of American Democracy. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Grimshaw William. 1992. Bitter Fruit: Black Politics and the Chicago Machine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Grofman Bernard, and
Chandler Davidson. 1992. Controversies in Minority Voting. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
Robert McKay, and
Howard Scarrow. 1982. Representation and Redistricting Issues. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.
Guterbock Thomas M. 1980. Machine Politics in Transition. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.
Harrigan John J. 1985. Political Change in the Metropolis. Boston: Little, Brown &