other's systems. Where no track directly links the two railroads, cars must
be handled by one or more intermediate railroads which form a connection.
In several large cities terminal railroads provide interchange among railroads and service to local industries. The terminal railroad can be an independent entity or owned by other railroad companies. In a few cases, a
terminal railroad is owned by state or local agencies.16
The railroad industry structure is essentially the same today as it was
during the 1840's when the toll railroad concept gave way to steam locomotives, iron rails, and a monopoly of service over each company's tracks. As
the nation and its railroad industry grew and matured, the concept of each
railroad having its own fixed way resulted in a paradox of monopoly and
competition, of independence and interdependence. The problems symptomatic of the traditional industry structure became known as the "Railroad
Problem." During the past half century the railroads have come to a state of
crisis because their structure has been unable to deal effectively with rising
intermodal competition and the expanding free market environment of
transportation as a whole.
Pipelines have terminals and fixed ways; the commodity serves as its own
carrier "vehicle." Motive power is provided by fixed pumping stations.
Henry S. Haines, American Railway Management, p. 2.
Edmund J. Phillips, Jr., Railroad Operation and Railway Signaling, pp. 38-96.
Bruce P. Curry, "Rutland Revival--Part 1: The Vermont Railway," Railfan,
Volume 1, Number 3 (Summer 1975), pp. 18-27; Bruce P. Curry and
Donald Valentine Jr.
, "Rutland Revival--Part 2: Green Mountain Railroad," Railfan,
Volume 1, Number 4 (Fall 1975), pp. 23-29; and E. H. Blabey II, "Rutland
Revival--Part 3: Ogdensburg Bridge & Port Authority," Railfan, Volume 1,
Number 4 (Fall 1975), pp. 30-32.
Kevin P. Keefe, "How Michigan Got into the Railroad Business," Trains, Volume 36, Number 12 ( October 1976), pp. 46-49; Rush Loving Jr., "Michigan's
Wacky Ride on the Little Railroad That Couldn't," Fortune, Volume 98,
Number 8 ( October 23, 1978), pp. 48-57.
A number of "designated operator" companies have contracted to operate
former Conrail routes under state-federal subsidy programs.
David M. Beers, "Short Line, Bridge Carrier, Marine Operator, Terminal Road," Trains, Volume 38, Number 12 ( October 1978), pp. 48-57.
The following contain detailed descriptions of railroad corporate organization
structures: Merle Armitage, Operations Santa Fe; Illinois Central Railroad Company,
Research and Development Bureau, Organization and Traffic of the IllinoisCentral System