radio waves would convey the information directly to the locomotive. When
viewed from this perspective, the option of automated operations on certain
routes would be an evolutionary change readily accommodated by the new
In terms of innovation, the Free Enterprise Alternative has two advantages: it gives carriers immense flexibility in arranging their resources and
provides incentives through a competitive free market. These two factors
create an optimal level of resource use in a dynamic sense throughout the
Without economic regulation and with rail roadways open to all carriers,
the free market would guide and regulate all carriers. Carriers could use
their resources in the most effective and most efficient manner. Carriers
could decide which markets to serve, defining their respective markets by
geography, commodity, type of service, type of customer, and other factors.
Carriers could change markets and market strategies as desired. In short,
there would be nothing to keep a carrier company from succeeding--or
failing--except the carrier company itself.
Peter F. Drucker, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, pp. 47, 65-67, 782-803 (particularly p. 786).
U.S., Department of Transportation, The Railroad Situation, p. 109 (see also pp. 26-28, 107-109).
There is no established definition for short, medium, or long hauls. As a rule
of thumb, long-haul traffic can be considered as that above the average rail haul,
generally over 500 miles. Short hauls can be those movements under 250 miles,
or roughly below the average haul for all trucks. Medium-length hauls would
then be approximately in the 250- to 500-mile range.
Chapter 12 describes the advantages of a unified roadway network and geographic concentration with respect to maintenance work.
Chapter 8 describes several short-haul service experiments, including the Illinois Central Railroad's Minitrain.
John G. Kneiling has written a number of articles concerning innovations in
rail service. Among them are the following: "A Tale of Three Trains--1. How
to Make Money Hauling Gravel," Trains, Volume 35, Number 3 ( January 1975), pp. 36-39; "A Tale of Three Trains--2. Get the Stuff Out of Town," Trains, Volume 35, Number 4 ( February 1975), pp. 44-46; "A Tale of Three
Trains--3. Pulpwood Trains Can Be Profitable," Trains, Volume 35, Number 5
( March 1975), pp. 26-28; "The Professional Iconoclast: Bits and Pieces from
the Trade," Trains, Volume 37, Number 7 ( May 1977), p. 5; "The Professional
Iconoclast: Innovations and Quality," Trains, Volume 33, Number 8 ( June