that of middle school students carrying out scientific inquiry projects, and apprentice teachers seeking to understand inquiry-oriented science teaching through analyzing videotapes of classroom teaching. For the students, we found that understanding and using the conceptual goals and processes through peer and self assessment improved their performance in carrying out scientific inquiry and in learning the domain science. Our analyses of the students' conversations suggests that the meanings of the concepts approximated those we had intended. For the teachers, we found that there was active engagement in constructing meanings for the teaching concepts, and that their constructions extended and enriched the taxonomy and characterizations of teaching processes we hoped they would develop. In our analysis of conversations using a very strict criterion for category involvement (i.e., explicit use of the terminology), we found that category use was associated with conversations that were highly productive in their explorations of the teaching process. It is important that the categories we introduced in our cognitive facilitation of collaborative reflection were chosen to represent functions of doing science and teaching. This quality invited the participants to develop instantiations of them in multiple situations, thereby promoting their generation of metacognitive knowledge for recognizing their cognitive strategies and processes, and for controlling and improving their cognition.
This work is supported by the James S. McDonnell Foundation (CSEP grant 95-6) and by the Educational Testing Service.
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John R. Frederiksen Research Division of Cognitive and Instructional Science, Educational Testing Service, 1000 Broadway, Suite 310, Oakland, CA 94623-2306. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Barbara Y. White Graduate School of Education, University of California at Berkeley, 4533 Tolman Hall #1670, Berkeley, CA 94720-1670. email@example.com.