Proceedings of CSCL '97: The Second International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning, December 10-14, 1997, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

By Rogers Hall; Naomi Miyake et al. | Go to book overview
relations between the structure and the function. They tended to view the paper tool as worksheets and did not use them dynamically to guide their learning.We are considering integrating the Design Diaries in a structure with SMILE and JavaCAP. In a software implementation, we can prompt for links between activities and components of their designs. Further, we can integrate the Design Diaries activity into the scaffolding structure of SMILE.
Conclusion
In the course of this work, we have learned several things about supporting collaborative learning on-line -- integration and providing guidance. We can further decompose integration into four pieces:
about integrating software into the same environment,
about integrating software and classroom activities,
about thinking through the integration of lines of collaboration tools (e.g., JavaCAP is both a CBR tool and a reflection tool), and
integrating support for both group and individual work.

In a sense, "students need guidance" is almost a subset of the integration issue. When do students need what and for what? Integrating all of the pieces of problem-solving makes the pieces consistent and easily usable.

There are, of course, many lessons that we could have listed here. Design of good collaborative tools takes time, we have found it useful to explore across a wide area of possibilities, and students need input from a variety of agents and perspectives. An even longer story can be told about our efforts to integrate our tools and curriculum through teacher development efforts. Working in the ivory tower, or even always telling teachers what we were going to provide without getting input from them about what is needed and how they would use, it wouldn't have worked as well as what we did end up doing--and we wish that our collaborations with our teachers could have been stronger than they were!

In summary, our lesson is that successful collaborative problem-solving and learning is not easy nor does it happen by accident. In every line of research, our first solution was not at all the right solution. But through the mistakes of previous generations, we are finding mechanisms to support student learning in a collaborative setting.


Acknowledgments

The work at the EduTech Institute in CSCL has been supported by the Woodruff Foundation, the ARPA CAETI program under contract N66001-95-C-8608, the McDonnell Foundation, and the National Science Foundation under grant ESI-9553583.


References

[1] J. L. Kolodner, "Educational implications of analogy: A view from case-based reasoning," American Psychologist, vol. 52, pp. 57-66, 1997.

[2] J. L. Kolodner, Case Based Reasoning. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1993.

[3] M. Scardamalia, C. Bereiter, R. McLean, J. Swallow , and E. Woodruff, "Computer-supported intentional learning environments," Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 5, pp. 51- 68, 1989.

[4] M. Scardamalia and C. Bereiter, "Higher levels of agency for children in knowledge building: A challenge for the design of new knowledge media," Journal of the Learning Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 37-68, 1991.

[5] M. Scardamalia, C. Bereiter, and M. Lamon, "The CSILE Project: Trying to bring the classroom into World 3," in Classroom Lessons: Integrating Cognitive Theory and Classroom Practice, K. McGilly, Ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1994, pp. 201-228.

[6] M. Guzdial, J. L. Kolodner, C. Hmelo, H. Narayanan , D. Carlson, N. Rappin, R. Hübscher, J. Turns, and W. Newstetter, "Computer support for learning through complex problem-solving," Communications of the ACM, vol. 39, pp. 43- 45, 1996.

[7] C. Hmelo, H. N. Narayanan, R. Hübscher, C. W. Newstetter , and J. L. Kolodner, "A multiple- case-based approach to generative environments for learning," VIVEK: A Quarterly in Artificial Intelligence, vol. 9, pp. 2-18, 1996.

[8] J. L. Kolodner, C. E. Hmelo, and N. H. Narayanan , "Problem-based learning meets case- based reasoning," presented at International Conference on the Learning Sciences, Northwestern University, 1996.

[9] G. Salomon, D. Perkins, and T. Globerson, "Partners in cognition: Extending human intelligence with intelligent technologies," Educational Researcher, vol. 20, pp. 2-9, 1991.

[10] M. Guzdial, J. Turns, N. Rappin, and D. Carlson , "Collaborative support for learning in complex domains," in Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (CSCL '95), J. L. Schnase and E. L. Cunnius, Eds. Bloomington, IN: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995, pp. 157-160.

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