efficient collaborative learning. CSCL environments should not prevent conflicts, but rather provide conditions for their constructive resolution.
To sum up, in this paper we employed the conceptual system of Activity Theory in an exploration into the nature of learning in the Zone of Proximal Development. We proposed that this learning is determined by an interplay between individual and collective activities. Cultural settings provide resources, affordances, and constraints to involve participants in new collective activities. While people might enter collective activities for a number of personal reasons, such activities often develop according to their own logic, so that learners have to coordinate two different perspectives -- the individual view and the collective view. In the process of such coordination learners can acquire new personal meanings, strategies, and skills.
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Victor Kaptelinin: Department of Informatics, Umeå University, S-901 87 Umeå, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org
Michael Cole: Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0092, USA email@example.com