technology. Other papers have described in some detail the role that computers played in making the Escher's World project work ( Shaffer 1997). Here what is most important is recognizing the design studio as a potential model for computer supported collaborative learning environments.
Perhaps most important, this research suggests that whatever model we take for supporting collaborative activities, students' experiences of collaboration are strongly influenced by their sense of control--or lack of control--over their learning process. Learning to work with others is an essential skill, particularly for the modem workplace. This work suggests that some care is needed in thinking about how create an environment where both collaboration and personal control of the learning process are given adequate support to help students master a domain like mathematics or design. The design studio may offer a model for one solution to this delicate balancing act.
Burner, J. S. ( 1996). The Culture of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.
Dewey, J. ( 1915). The School and Society. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
Dewey, J. ( 1938). Experience and Education. New York: Collier Books.
Gardner, H. ( 1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Books.
Kafai, Y., & Harel, I. ( 1991). "Learning through design and teaching: exploring social and collaborative aspects of constructionism." In I. Harel & S. Papert (Eds.), Constructionism Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Noss, R., & Hoyles, C. ( 1996). Windows on mathematical meanings: learning cultures and computers. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Papert, S. ( 1980). Mindstorms: children, computers, and powerful ideas. New York: Basic Books.
Papert, S. ( 1991). "Situating constructionism." In I. Harel & S. Papert (Eds.), Constructionism Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Papert, S. ( 1993). The children's machine: rethinking school in the age of the computer. New York: Basic Books.
Parker, F. W. ( 1894/ 1969). Talks on Pedagogics. New York: Arno Press.
Pea, R. ( 1993). "Practices of distributed intelligence and designs for education." In G. Salomon (Eds.), Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.
Resnick, M., & Ocko, S. ( 1991). "LEGO/Logo: Learning through and about design." In I. Harel & S. Papert (Eds.), Constructionism Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Schon, D. A. ( 1985). The Design Studio: An exploration of its traditions and potentials. London: RIBA Publications.
Shaffer, D. W. ( 1997). "Learning mathematics through design: the anatomy of Escher's world." Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 16( 2).
Shaffer, D. W. (in press). "Escher's world: learning symmetry through mathematics and art." Symmetry: Culture and Science.
Sizer, T. R. ( 1984). Horace's Compromise: The Dilemma of the American High School. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Vygotsky, L. S. ( 1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wilensky, U. ( 1995). "Paradox, programming, and learning probability: a case study in a connected mathematics framework." Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 14, 253-280.