Maternal Antecedents of Attachment Quality
Susan J. Spieker Cathryn L. Booth Department of Parent and Child Nursing and Child Development and Mental Retardation Center University of Washington
Most of the seminal research on attachment in infancy has been based on low-risk samples of fairly stable, lower middle-class to upper middle-class families. Reviews of studies of predominantly middle-class American samples usually report them to be quite consistent in the proportions of secure (B), insecure-avoidant (A), and insecure-resistant (C) infants. In fact, a brief survey of several frequently cited attachment studies revealed a range in the proportions of secure and insecure (avoidant and resistant) infants. This sampling of studies of low-risk infants, summarized in Table 4.1, suggests that there is a range in the expectable proportions of avoidant, secure, and resistant classifications. Across samples, the proportion of avoidant infants ranges from 15% to 32%; the proportion of secure infants ranges from 57% to 73%; and the proportion of resistant infants ranges from 4% to 22%.
|Ainsworth et al. ( 1978)||106||12 mos||22%||66%||12%|
|original Baltimore sample||23||12 mos||26%||57%||17%|
|Bell ( 1970)||33||12 mos||15%||73%||12%|
|Belsky et al. ( 1984)||54||12 mos||18.5%||63%||18.5%|
|Main & Weston ( 1981)||44||12 mos||30%||52%||5%||14%|