Intersections with Attachment

By Jacob L. Gewirtz; William M. Kurtines | Go to book overview

3
Efe Multiple Caretaking and Attachment

Gilda A. Morelli Edward Z. Tronick


ABSTRACT

A model for understanding the process of attachment formation during the infant's first year of life is developed using as way of illustration the early caregiving pattern of a group of forest gatherers and hunters, the Efe. The Efe engage in a system of extensive multiple caregiving beginning at birth and continuing for at least the first 4 months of the infant's life. It appears, however, that in the context of multiple care, one-year-olds form special relationships with their mothers. The model proposed to account for this process takes into consideration the strategies used by caregiver and infant to guide the allocation of material and psychological resources. Caregiver investment strategies are shaped by sociocultural and historical factors; infant resource acquisition strategies are initially under strong genetic control, but soon take more culturally appropriate forms. Both sets of strategies allow individuals to better deal with situational factors. The strategic model is compared to theory of attachment advanced by Bowlby, Ainsworth and others.

We conceptualize normal development as occurring through an interaction of mutually regulatory behavioral strategies flexibly deployed by children and caregivers in the service of achieving short- and long-term goals. For children, these strategies are referred to as child resource acquisition strategies and for caregivers as caregiver investment strategies. The resources acquired and invested are both material and psychological. Their form and content are guided by cultural values and beliefs, characteristics of the sociocultural environment, past experience, and evolved capacities and motivations (see also Lamb, Thompson, Gardner, & Charnov, 1985; Chisolm, 1983).

Caregiver-child strategies are aimed at accomplishing three universal goals: infant survival and eventual reproduction, economic self-sufficiency, and en-

-41-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Intersections with Attachment
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 328

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.