Intersections with Attachment

By Jacob L. Gewirtz; William M. Kurtines | Go to book overview

7
The Attachment Metaphor and the Conditioning of Infant Separation Protests

Jacob L. Gewirtz

Martha Peláez-Nogueras


ABSTRACT

The "attachment" metaphor has labeled a process, of which infant protests to maternal separations have served as an index in the literature. Yet the potential reinforcing role of maternal behaviors (e.g., her departure delay, vacillation or return, reasoning with and/or reassuring the child) when contingent on cued infant protests (cries, fusses, whimpers, and/or whines) has been overlooked in attachment theory and research. The thesis of the investigation reported here is that, by their contingent responding, mothers (and others) may shape and condition their infant's protests in the very departure or separation settings in which those responses are found. Within the frame of the social-conditioning paradigm, how such infant protests come under the control of cues and contingencies provided by routine maternal behaviors was examined during her departures and, separately, during the ensuing brief separations. Nine 6- to 9-mo. infants were subjected to a repeated-measures design, in successive daily sessions. Two treatments were implemented: 1) DRO--differential reinforcement of behaviors other than protests, in which cued infant protests were never followed by contingent maternal responses; and 2) CRF--continuous reinforcement, in which cued infant protests were always followed by contingent maternal responses. The cued-protest rates of all infant Ss, both in departures and brief separations, increased from the noncontingent-first (DRO1) to the contingent-second (CRF2) treatment and decreased from the contingent-second (CRF2) to the noncontingent-third (DRO3) treatment. The reliable result-pattern differences in cued infant responses support the assumption that protests can be conditioned in everyday settings, trained (inadvertently) by the social contingencies provided by caregiver behaviors in the very departure and separation contexts in which the infant protests are found. The relation of cued infant protests to the infant's attachment to mother is considered throughout.

During the early months of life, infant protests during maternal/caregiver depar-

-123-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Intersections with Attachment
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 328

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.