Compliance-Gaining Goals: An Inductive Analysis of Actors' Goal Types, Strategies, and Successes
Michael J. Cody University of Southern California, Los Angeles
Daniel J. Canary Ohio University
Sandi W. Smith Michigan State University
The objective of compliance-gaining research is to increase our understanding of how social actors use messages to achieve goals. Whereas the research area focusing on "compliance-gaining message strategy selection" has been popular in the communication discipline in the last several years, research on dyadic social influence processes has a long history in social psychology (see reviews by Seibold, Cantrill, & Meyers, 1985; Wheeless, Barraclough, & Stewart, 1983). Three decades of research, for example, have focused on ingratiation tactics ( Godfrey, Jones, & Lord, 1986; Jones, 1964; Jones & Wortman, 1973), bases of power ( French & Raven, 1959; Raven, Centers, & Rodrigues, 1975; Raven & Kruglanski, 1970), and influence in the organization ( Kipnis, 1972, 1976; Kipnis, Castell, Gergen, & March, 1976; Kipnis & Cosentino, 1969; Kipnis & Lane, 1962; Kipnis, Schmidt, & Braxton-Brown, 1990; Kipnis, Schmidt, & Wilkinson, 1980; Schmidt & Kipnis, 1984). Our contribution to the general area of influence processes began with an interest in how people perceive common influence situations ( Cody & McLaughlin, 1980, 1985a; Cody, Woelfel, & Jordan, 1983), and extended to research attempting to uncover the types of strategies people use when influencing others ( Cody, 1982; Cody, Greene, Marston, Baaske, O'Hair, & Schneider, 1986; Cody, McLaughlin, & Jordan, 1980; Cody, McLaughlin, & Schneider, 1981).
Recently, however, we have been more interested in how goals (rather than specific situation perceptions) direct strategies ( Canary & Cody, in press;