examine how salient personality features such as self-monitoring and locus of control ( Canary et al., 1986, 1988) operate within different goals. The evidence to date indicates that goals and personality factors interact in clear ways to affect strategic behaviors.
This chapter presents a typology of goals that depicts particular motives discussed in the fields of cognitive social psychology, communication, and organizational behavior, integrating definitions of motives with situation perceptions to account for distinctions relevant to actors. There is no doubt that actors frequently pursue certain goal types with varying degrees of confidence and anticipated persistence, and there is no doubt that actors adapt their messages for particular targets and particular motives. Further, we found that the basic or intermediate level of analysis was more profitable for examining tactical choices than the superordinate level analysis. Thus, we believe that the efforts by Dillard, Rule and Bisanz, Kipnis, as well as our own and others', have resulted in a viable typology of goals that clearly reflects how social actors think about influencing others, and one that is strongly associated with behaviors. In the next phase of this research, we want to assess more fully the content of cognitive representations of goal types and examine actors' behavioral expectations for compliance. Targets are expected to comply to certain requests due to reciprocity constraints, relational commitment, values or principles, and the like ( Cialdini, 1984; Dillard & Fitzpatrick, 1985). We further want to analyze how actors' goals are linked to process; that is, how actors usually plan interactions; how other person variables are related to goal pursuit and motives; how communication transforms actors' perceptions of the situation ( Giles & Hewstone, 1982); and how actors reinterpret their goals during and following strategic communication.
We wish to thank the following individuals for their important contributions: Joan Cashion, Shannon LoVette, Margaret L. McLaughlin, and John Wiemann. We also wish to thank Nancy Baker for assistance in typing the manuscript.
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