with a problem in regard to intergroup interaction must understand and deal with the particular practices conjointly produced in that interaction if positive change is to occur.
We have overviewed strategies that individuals can use to communicate effectively in intergroup contexts. Effective intergroup communication requires cognitive, affective, and behavioral (including linguistic) adaptations by one or both interactants in an intergroup encounter. The perspective presented in the majority of the chapter suggests that it is our responsibility as participants in a social system to behave in a moral inclusive manner and to try to communicate effectively with members of other groups, adapting our behavior when necessary. To accomplish these goals we must be mindful of the process of our communication with strangers. Even though individuals may be mindful and motivated to communicate effectively with strangers, institutional support is necessary to improve intergroup relations in society. We need to develop social climates in our institutions where the Vulcan salutation--"Greetings. I am pleased to see that you are different. May we together become greater than the sum of both of us."--is "the rule, not the exception," in intergroup encounters.
The original version of this chapter was written in 1986. When given an opportunity to "update" the chapter in May 1992, our thinking had changed sufficiently that we chose to rewrite it completely. To meet the short turnaround allowed, we have used some material published elsewhere (e.g., Gudykunst & Kim, 1992).
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