English in Its Social Contexts: Essays in Historical Sociolinguistics

By Tim William MacHan; Charles T. Scott | Go to book overview
( 1750), Ann Fisher produced a number of elementary books for teaching English. At least thirty-five editions of the New Grammar appeared by the year 1800. Alston indicates that Fisher's grammar, though generally conventional, is responsible for introducing a practice that was subsequently followed in many grammars, namely, providing examples of "Bad English," as Latin grammars commonly provided examples of "false syntax."
7.
Landau ( 1989:47) reports that Nathaniel Bailey had entered shite in his 1721 dictionary, giving as its definition "to ease Nature, to discharge the Belly"; he also listed fuck, though he defined it only in Latin: "Foeminam subagitare."
8.
"Will in the first Person singular and plural promises or threatens; in the second and third Persons only foretells: shall on the contrary, in the first Person simply foretells; in the second and third Persons commands or threatens" ( Lowth, 1762:58-59).

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I am grateful for comments by Dwight Atkinson and Douglas Biber.
WORKS CITED
Aarsleff, Hans. 1983. The Study of Language in England. 1780-1860. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press [ 1967].
Abrams, M. H., ed. 1986. The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 5th ed., Vol. 2. New York: Norton.
Biber, Douglas. 1988. Variation Across Speech and Writing. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
-----, and Edward Finegan. 1989. "Drift and the Evolution of English Style: A History of Three Genres." Language 65:487-517.
Baugh, Albert C., and Thomas Cable. 1978. A History of the English Language, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N J: Prentice-Hall.
Bolton, W. F., ed. 1966. The English Language: Essays by English and American Men of Letters 1490-1839. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Bond, Donald F. 1965. The Spectator. 5 vols. Oxford: Clarendon.
Campbell, George. 1963. The Philosophy of Rhetoric. Ed. Lloyd F. Bitzer. Carbondale: Southern illinois Press [ 1776].
Clement, R. D. 1984. "Gaelic." In Peter Trudgill, ed., Language in the British Isles. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 318-342.
Cressy, David. 1980. Literacy and the Social Order: Reading and Writing in Tudor and Stuart England. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Crowley, Tony. 1989. Standard English and the Politics of Language. Urbana: University of illinois Press.
Finegan, Edward. 1980. Attitudes Toward English Usage: The History of a War of Words. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.
Fisher, Ann. 1750. A New Grammar. Ed. R. C. Alston. Menston, England: Scolar. 1968.
Haugen, Einar. 1966. "Dialect, Language, Nation." American Anthropologist 68:922- 935. Reprinted in Pride and Holmes.
Johnson, Samuel. 1747. The Plan of a Dictionary of the English Language; Addressed to the Right Honourable Philip Dormer. Earl of Chesterfield. London. Reprint. Menston, England: Scolar Press, 1970.
-----. 1755. A Dictionary of the English Language. 2 vols. London.
-----. 1969. The Rambler. in W. J. Bate and Albrecht B. Streuse, eds., The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson. New Haven: Yale University Press.

-129-

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