The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250

By Colin Morris | Go to book overview

20
REASON AND HOPE IN A CHANGING WORLD.

In the preceding chapters a good deal has been said about the pastoral commitments of the church. Through preaching and the confessional, through the example of friars and the repression of heretics, the faith and morals of the laity were to be purified. This was not pastoral care in the modern spirit, for the preachers were strong on discipline and weak on lay leadership, but it represented a pattern of ministry which cannot be paralleled in earlier centuries and which had influential champions. It affected intellectuals and administrators, but they also had other concerns, and the next two chapters will examine the forces which shaped scholarship and governmental structures.


i. A New Pattern of Learning: the Universities

A universitas is a guild, a type of organization widely developed in medieval society. The recognition of the privileges of a 'university' of masters, which freed it from control by local ecclesiastical or civic authorities, created a new type of higher education in Christendom. That is not to say that it was an abrupt break. The three most outstanding universities in the thirteenth century all had a previous history as centres of study before they acquired their new privileges shortly after 1200, and the other city schools continued to function effectively. In spite of the number of masters teaching at Paris in 1170, the evidence that there was already an organized guild there is tenuous; but by the time of Innocent III the masters formed a body with its own regulations, and in 1215 the issue of statutes by Robert of Courson, papal legate and former master in theology, marked the definitive emergence of the university. In April 1231 the bull Parens scientiarum, which has been called the Magna Carta of the new university, adjudicated the continuing disputes with the bishop's chancellor. By the middle of the century the main outlines of the constitution were clear, with a rector, proctors, faculties, and a

-505-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 673

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.