Pre-Roman and Roman Winchester - Vol. 2

By Giles Clarke; J. L. MacDonald et al. | Go to book overview

6 INHUMATIONS: THE GRAVE-FURNITURE

GRAVE-FURNITURE may be defined as everything within a grave which was intentionally deposited, and which did not form part of the grave-pit or structure, the corpse, or any container enclosing the body.1 Grave-furniture thus includes offerings deposited as the grave was being filled as well as objects actually placed with the burial. Archaeologically speaking, grave-furniture is restricted to finds which have survived in recognisable form. Objects made from organic substances inevitably are excluded unless exceptional conditions of preservation have caused their survival. Objects whose status as grave-furniture is open to doubt also have to be left out; these include any finds from grave-fills which could be non-funerary.

Grave-furniture in the sense just defined was found with the burial in 237 intact inhumations at Lankhills.2 It also occurred in nine partially excavated graves, in the cenotaph, Grave 400,3 and in one destroyed grave.4 Items from grave-fills which could


TABLE 15 Objects found in grave-fills and possibly deposited as offerings
Grave Find
number
Description of find(s) Comments
5837 Coin (364-78)Grave 58 had 1 coin in mouth, and 3 around skull,
 all dated to 364-78. In view of the similarity in
 date, 37 might also be seen as an offering.
10081-91
167-8
297
Bracelets,
U +00A0beads, and
  pins
These objects were all found together. Certainly
 an offering, they could have been inserted into a
 small hole subsequent to the back-filling of the
 grave.
193673 Bird-bones, scattered above
 feet
The bird could have been dismembered as the grave
 was being back-filled.
283475 Coin (350-64)Grave 283 had 2 coins under the skull, both dated
  387-402. 475, which was over the skull, could
 also have been an offering.
316373 Latch-lifter Found deep in the fill of an otherwise unfurnished
 grave.
317367 Coin (364-75)Grave 317 cut Grave 310. A discoloured tooth from
 Grave 310 was in the fill of Grave 317. 367 was
 probably originally in the mouth of the burial in
 Grave 310.
322375
 400
Bracelet fragment
 Coin (illegible)
Grave 322 cut through Grave 321 and a discoloured
 arm bone was in its fill. 375 and 400 were
 perhaps also disturbed from Grave 321.
____________________
1
For theoretical discussion of grave-furnishing and its analysis, see Clarke 1975b.
2
Entered in Table 2, cols. 22 (hobnails) and 23 (all other furniture). For the terms 'intact', 'partially excavated', and 'destroyed', see above, p. 16.
3
See above, pp. 82-3, and Fig. 66.
4
Grave 56: see above, pp. 30-1, and Fig. 66.

-145-

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Pre-Roman and Roman Winchester - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Author's Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Figures xvii
  • List of Tables xxi
  • List of Abbreviations xxiii
  • Introduction li
  • Part I - The Excavation 1
  • 1 - Circumstances of Excavation 1
  • 2 - Archaeological Background 4
  • 3 - General Character of the Excavation 12
  • 4 - The Graves *
  • 5 - Other Features 96
  • Part II - Analysis 111
  • 1 - Introduction 111
  • 2 - Chronology 113
  • 3 - Age and Sex 123
  • 4 - Cremations 128
  • 5 - Inhumations: The Grave 131
  • 6 - Inhumations: The Grave-Furniture 145
  • 7 - Cemetery Organisation 183
  • Part III - The Finds 201
  • 1: Introduction 201
  • 2 - Coins 202
  • 3 - Pewter Vessels 206
  • 4 - Glass Vessels 209
  • 5 - Pottery Vessels 221
  • 6 - Animal Remains 239
  • 7 - Equipment 246
  • 8 - Cross-Bow Brooches 257
  • 9 - Belts and Belt-Fittings 264
  • 10 - Beads and Necklaces 292
  • 11 - Bracelets 301
  • 12 - Other Personal Ornaments 315
  • 13 - Hobnails and Footwear 322
  • 14 - Miscellaneous Objects 326
  • 15 - Textile Remains 329
  • 16 - Coffin-Nails, Coffin-Fittings, and Coffins 332
  • 17 - Human Skeletons: Preliminary Reports 342
  • 18 - Economic Conclusions 345
  • Part IV - Discussion 347
  • 1 - Late Romano-British Burial Practice 347
  • 2 - Foreign Elements 377
  • 3 - Religion 404
  • Concordances 434
  • Addenda 451
  • Index of Sites 517
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