Pre-Roman and Roman Winchester - Vol. 2

By Giles Clarke; J. L. MacDonald et al. | Go to book overview

5 POTTERY VESSELS

i. LATE ROMAN POTTERY

by MICHAEL FULFORD

THERE are ninety1 vessels which were found with the burial in intact or partially excavated inhumations at Lankhills. In addition, a number of whole vessels and sherds were recovered from grave-fills, cremations, other features, and rescue-observations.2 Almost all this material is late Roman; there are a few prehistoric sherds (for which see below, p. 237), but virtually nothing of the earlier Roman period.

Of the forty-nine colour-coated vessels from the inhumations, thirty-six were made in the New Forest kilns,3 and twelve or thirteen in the kilns of the Oxfordshire region.4 It is more difficult to be certain of an Oxfordshire provenance for beakers, flagons, and flasks, because these types have not received the same attention in publication as the red-slipped and 'parchment' types. Although form and decoration may not be closely paralleled, fabric and slip provide a good indication of the source. Other attributions for the colour-coated types do not seem likely, although the beaker 529 has a fabric which resembles that defined as Pevensey ware.5 Taken as a whole, over 50 per cent of the pottery from the graves is colour-coated, a figure which compares with 20-5 per cent on settlement sites in the south of Britain in the fourth century.

Of the coarse or grey-ware vessels, 61, the 'unguent' flask from Grave 45, may be an import from Germany,6 but the majority are likely to have originated in either the Alice Holt7 or New Forest kilns, both of which are within 40 km of Winchester. Similarities between the grey fabrics of these two centres make any definite attribution difficult, the more so as we lack a good series of published kiln- groups from Alice Holt. Two coarse vessels are likely to have come from the centre producing black-burnished ware in Dorset:8212 (Grave 182) and 256 (Grave 250).

With the dating of the pottery and its relevance to the dating of the cemetery there are two main points to be considered: first, the extent to which other sites suggest independent dating evidence for the Lankhills pottery, particularly with regard to the start of the cemetery; second, the extent to which Lankhills may itself be used to extend the pottery sequence already established on the basis of other sites. The possibilities under the second heading are very much dependent on whether the pottery from Lankhills can be considered typical of an ordinary settlement.

____________________
1
This figure excludes 211 (Grave 182), which was mislaid subsequent to its discovery.
2
Thirty-one sherds and fourteen whole vessels from these various sources are described.
3
Cf. Swan 1973; Fulford 1973a; Fulford 1975a. When comparing this pottery report with Fulford 1975a, it should be noted that to enable pottery dates to be used in the analysis of Lankhills, this report was written in late 1973.
4
Cf. Young 1973.
5
Fulford 1973b.
6
Fulford and Bird 1975, esp. 178; see below, p. 227.
7
Cf. Bennettet al. 1963, and the references there cited.
8
Cf. Peacock 1973.

-221-

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Pre-Roman and Roman Winchester - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Author's Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Figures xvii
  • List of Tables xxi
  • List of Abbreviations xxiii
  • Introduction li
  • Part I - The Excavation 1
  • 1 - Circumstances of Excavation 1
  • 2 - Archaeological Background 4
  • 3 - General Character of the Excavation 12
  • 4 - The Graves *
  • 5 - Other Features 96
  • Part II - Analysis 111
  • 1 - Introduction 111
  • 2 - Chronology 113
  • 3 - Age and Sex 123
  • 4 - Cremations 128
  • 5 - Inhumations: The Grave 131
  • 6 - Inhumations: The Grave-Furniture 145
  • 7 - Cemetery Organisation 183
  • Part III - The Finds 201
  • 1: Introduction 201
  • 2 - Coins 202
  • 3 - Pewter Vessels 206
  • 4 - Glass Vessels 209
  • 5 - Pottery Vessels 221
  • 6 - Animal Remains 239
  • 7 - Equipment 246
  • 8 - Cross-Bow Brooches 257
  • 9 - Belts and Belt-Fittings 264
  • 10 - Beads and Necklaces 292
  • 11 - Bracelets 301
  • 12 - Other Personal Ornaments 315
  • 13 - Hobnails and Footwear 322
  • 14 - Miscellaneous Objects 326
  • 15 - Textile Remains 329
  • 16 - Coffin-Nails, Coffin-Fittings, and Coffins 332
  • 17 - Human Skeletons: Preliminary Reports 342
  • 18 - Economic Conclusions 345
  • Part IV - Discussion 347
  • 1 - Late Romano-British Burial Practice 347
  • 2 - Foreign Elements 377
  • 3 - Religion 404
  • Concordances 434
  • Addenda 451
  • Index of Sites 517
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