Pre-Roman and Roman Winchester - Vol. 2

By Giles Clarke; J. L. MacDonald et al. | Go to book overview

8 CROSS-BOW BROOCHES
EIGHT cross-bow brooches were discovered at Lankhills (Fig. 32).1 Developed cross-bow brooches are a late Roman type, appearing at the end of the third century as successors of the Scharnierfibeln,2 which in England are sometimes regarded as early versions of the cross-bow brooch.3 Developed cross-bow brooches are common in the Roman frontier-provinces on the Continent.4 Comparatively few examples are known from Britain, the only published collections of any size, apart from Lankhills, coming from Richborough (Kent)5 and Lydney (Glos.).6
i. KELLER'S TYPOLOGY
Although there was clearly regional variation in detail, the basic typological development of fourth- century cross-bow brooches seems to have been remarkably consistent over wide areas of the Roman Empire. A comprehensive classification and chronology has recently been formulated by Keller,7 based principally on Hungarian examples in coin-dated graves and although this certainly requires some modification, it provides a useful foundation. Already it has been followed by Böhme8 and Jobst,9 and it should clearly form the basis for our study of the Lankhills finds. However, Keller is not entirely explicit about his type definitions, and his classification can only be fully understood by looking at the brooches actually placed in each type. In these circumstances, there is an obvious risk of confusion especially as Keller's scheme is more complex that at first appears.10 It is therefore necessary to set out his typology in full, and to state, and where appropriate criticise, his propose dating.
Type 1:11 Hexagonal-sectioned cross-piece, usually undecorated (Type 1A), but sometimes with additions near the bow (Type 1B). Knobs unfaceted, usually longer than they are wide. Narrow bow. Foot shorter than the bow, with linear decoration.
Type 2:12 Hexagonal-sectioned cross-piece, with decoration added, running out from the bow. Knobs faceted, usually longer than they are wide. Narrow bow. Foot shorter than the bow, with linear (Type 2A), simple-circle (Type 2B), or involuted (Type 2C) decoration.
Type 3:13 Narrow cross-piece, with rectangular or trapezoidal cross-section, and decoration running out from the bow. Knobs onion-shaped.
____________________
1
I am grateful to Mr. D. F. Mackreth for commenting on the Lankhills brooches, and for drafting the individual brooch descriptions.
10
Especially from Keller 1971, Abb. 11.
11
Ibid. 32-5; cf. Jobst 1975, Taf. 30-2, Nos. 226-39.
12
Keller 1971, 35-6; cf. Jobst 1975, Taf. 32-3, Nos. 240-4.
13
Keller 1971, 37-8; cf. Jobst 1975, Taf. 34-5, Nos. 245-55.
2
Jobst 1975, 88, 94.
3
See, for example, BM Guide ( 1951), 20, No. 27.
4
Listed in Keller 1971, 209-19.
5
Bushe-Fox 1928, Pl. XVIII; 1949, Pls. XXXI, 64, XXXII, 65; Cunliffe (ed.) 1968, Pl. XXXIII, 80, 81.
6
Wheeler and Wheeler 1932, Fig. 13.
7
Keller 1971, 26-53, Abb. 11.
8
Böhme 1974, 51.
9
Jobst 1975, 91-106.

-257-

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Pre-Roman and Roman Winchester - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Author's Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Figures xvii
  • List of Tables xxi
  • List of Abbreviations xxiii
  • Introduction li
  • Part I - The Excavation 1
  • 1 - Circumstances of Excavation 1
  • 2 - Archaeological Background 4
  • 3 - General Character of the Excavation 12
  • 4 - The Graves *
  • 5 - Other Features 96
  • Part II - Analysis 111
  • 1 - Introduction 111
  • 2 - Chronology 113
  • 3 - Age and Sex 123
  • 4 - Cremations 128
  • 5 - Inhumations: The Grave 131
  • 6 - Inhumations: The Grave-Furniture 145
  • 7 - Cemetery Organisation 183
  • Part III - The Finds 201
  • 1: Introduction 201
  • 2 - Coins 202
  • 3 - Pewter Vessels 206
  • 4 - Glass Vessels 209
  • 5 - Pottery Vessels 221
  • 6 - Animal Remains 239
  • 7 - Equipment 246
  • 8 - Cross-Bow Brooches 257
  • 9 - Belts and Belt-Fittings 264
  • 10 - Beads and Necklaces 292
  • 11 - Bracelets 301
  • 12 - Other Personal Ornaments 315
  • 13 - Hobnails and Footwear 322
  • 14 - Miscellaneous Objects 326
  • 15 - Textile Remains 329
  • 16 - Coffin-Nails, Coffin-Fittings, and Coffins 332
  • 17 - Human Skeletons: Preliminary Reports 342
  • 18 - Economic Conclusions 345
  • Part IV - Discussion 347
  • 1 - Late Romano-British Burial Practice 347
  • 2 - Foreign Elements 377
  • 3 - Religion 404
  • Concordances 434
  • Addenda 451
  • Index of Sites 517
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