Pre-Roman and Roman Winchester - Vol. 2

By Giles Clarke; J. L. MacDonald et al. | Go to book overview

2 FOREIGN ELEMENTS
THIS chapter concerns two groups of intrusive graves from Lankhills.1 It is self- contained and so includes a recapitulation of why the graves are foreign. It is mainly concerned with where the foreigners came from, but it also considers why they came to Winchester and what happened to them subsequently.
i. INTRUSIVE GRAVES DATED c. 350-410
This group of sixteen graves, spread over the second half of the fourth century, was defined in Part II.2 Eight of the graves belonged to men,3 four to women,4 and four to young girls.5 The salient points of their furnishing were as follows (cf. Figs. 61 and 62):
1. Abundant provision of different categories of object.
2. Exceptional consistency in what was provided and where it was put.
3. Personal ornaments worn at burial:
i. in male graves a brooch on or around the right shoulder and belt-fittings at or near the waist;
ii. in female graves beads around the neck and bracelets encircling the wrist, mostly on the left arm.
4. Offerings of some kind by the right foot: in male graves most often one vessel, and in female graves generally two.
5. Coins quite often provided, and placed anywhere except in the mouth.
6. Equipment also quite often provided: in male graves a knife at the waist, and in female graves a spindle-whorl or, later, a comb, frequently near the right foot.
7. Hobnails not present.

This consistent layout was unlike that in earlier or contemporary graves at Lankhills. It was seemingly faithfully adhered to in the earliest of the sixteen graves, some of which were coin-dated to c. 350-70.6 But those among them definitely datable after c. 370 revealed evidence for breakdown and variation, and for the absorption of practices typical of other obviously native graves.7 In these circumstances it was argued that the sixteen graves could only be explained as the burials of people foreign to Winchester, who were gradually being assimilated into the native population.

____________________
1
Some of the intrusive graves dated c. 350-410 have previously been published, and their ethnic affinities incorrectly stated. See Clarke 1970, 296-7; 1975a, 126; 1975b, 55. In Clarke 1970, 297, it is also wrongly implied that Grave 37 and buckle 92 are Germanic; they are native (see above, pp. 174, 288-9, and 362).
2
See above, pp. 155-76, esp. 174-5. These graves are all those with worn personal ornaments except Graves 373 and 376.
3
Graves 13, 23, 81, 106, 234, 322, 366, and 426, for plans of which, see Fig. 61.
4
Graves 63, 326, 351, and 396, for plans of which, see Fig. 62.
5
Graves 40., 323, 333, and 336, for plans of which, see Fig. 62.
6
Graves 13, 81, 323, and 336; see Table 30.
7
Especially in Graves 333 and 351. Grave 333 contained hobnails, and Grave 351 a coin in the mouth.

-377-

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Pre-Roman and Roman Winchester - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Author's Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Figures xvii
  • List of Tables xxi
  • List of Abbreviations xxiii
  • Introduction li
  • Part I - The Excavation 1
  • 1 - Circumstances of Excavation 1
  • 2 - Archaeological Background 4
  • 3 - General Character of the Excavation 12
  • 4 - The Graves *
  • 5 - Other Features 96
  • Part II - Analysis 111
  • 1 - Introduction 111
  • 2 - Chronology 113
  • 3 - Age and Sex 123
  • 4 - Cremations 128
  • 5 - Inhumations: The Grave 131
  • 6 - Inhumations: The Grave-Furniture 145
  • 7 - Cemetery Organisation 183
  • Part III - The Finds 201
  • 1: Introduction 201
  • 2 - Coins 202
  • 3 - Pewter Vessels 206
  • 4 - Glass Vessels 209
  • 5 - Pottery Vessels 221
  • 6 - Animal Remains 239
  • 7 - Equipment 246
  • 8 - Cross-Bow Brooches 257
  • 9 - Belts and Belt-Fittings 264
  • 10 - Beads and Necklaces 292
  • 11 - Bracelets 301
  • 12 - Other Personal Ornaments 315
  • 13 - Hobnails and Footwear 322
  • 14 - Miscellaneous Objects 326
  • 15 - Textile Remains 329
  • 16 - Coffin-Nails, Coffin-Fittings, and Coffins 332
  • 17 - Human Skeletons: Preliminary Reports 342
  • 18 - Economic Conclusions 345
  • Part IV - Discussion 347
  • 1 - Late Romano-British Burial Practice 347
  • 2 - Foreign Elements 377
  • 3 - Religion 404
  • Concordances 434
  • Addenda 451
  • Index of Sites 517
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