DIAGNOSIS OF CITIZENSHIP AND LEADERSHIP
Strangely enough, the development of methods and techniques for diagnosing and measuring good citizenship lags behind the development of methods for discovering the worse forms of conduct deviation. Fewer persons have devoted their energies and attention to methods for discovering the good citizen than to methods for locating the delinquent and criminal; and greater intelligence has been displayed in devising means for discovering the criminal. This is true in a popular as well as a technical sense. Not only have fewer psychologists interested themselves in the diagnosis of citizenship, but in the world of affairs much more attention has been paid to tracking down and convicting the criminal than to discovering possible leaders for our democracy. An elaborate machinery has been devised for apprehending the criminal and giving him a fair trial, and many millions of dollars have been expended in erecting penitentiaries for his confinement. For the discovery and advancement of the good citizen, no similar machinery has been conceived, and there has been no similar expenditure except as this has been the tacit mission of education and the school. Yet greater returns to society from its investment in social welfare would, without doubt, accrue if more attention were given to the good citizen than the criminal.
From the point of view of measurement, good citizenship is on the same scale as crime, though it is at the opposite extreme. Thus, if we conceive of a scale representing