International Handbook on Mental Health Policy

By Donna R. Kemp | Go to book overview

New Zealand

Max W. Abbottand Donna R. Kemp


OVERVIEW

New Zealand is a country of 103,866 square miles, about the size of the state of Colorado, located in the southwest Pacific approximately 1,200 miles southeast of Australia. It consists of two main islands, the North Island and the South Island, separated by the Cook Strait, and numerous small coastal islands.

There are approximately 3.4 million New Zealanders. Most are of British descent. The indigenous Maori of Polynesian origin comprise approximately 10 percent of the total, and Polynesians from other Pacific Islands, 3 percent. In addition, there are a small number of Asians, including Indochinese refugees. Over 75 percent of New Zealand's population lives in urban areas, where manufacturing and service industries are established ( Bureau of Public Affairs, 1987). Population growth is slow because of low fertility levels and net migration losses.

New Zealand has a parliamentary system of government patterned after the United Kingdom, and it is a fully independent member of the Commonwealth. There is no written constitution. The governmental system is unitary. Executive authority is vested in a cabinet led by a prime minister, who is the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the majority of seats in Parliament. Cabinet members must be members of Parliament and are collectively responsible to it. The unicameral Parliament (House of Representatives) has ninety-five members, four of whom must be Maori, elected on a separate roll. Representatives are normally elected for a three-year term, but elections can be called sooner. The judiciary consists of the Court of Appeals, the Supreme Court, and the Magistrate's Courts. The major political parties are the National Party and the Labour Party. As a result of the 1990 elections, the former gained control of the government. Both parties stand for free enterprise.

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International Handbook on Mental Health Policy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Foreword xv
  • 1: An Overview of Mental Health Policy from an International Perspective 1
  • 2: Argentina 19
  • 3: Canada 45
  • Notes 65
  • References 65
  • 4: Chile 67
  • 5: India 79
  • References 106
  • 6: Israel 109
  • Notes 134
  • Notes 135
  • 7: Italy 139
  • References 154
  • 8: Japan 159
  • Notes 174
  • 9: Korea 177
  • Notes 195
  • 10: The Netherlands 197
  • Notes 215
  • New Zealand 217
  • 12: Nigeria 253
  • Notes 269
  • Pakistan 273
  • Notes 286
  • 14: People's Republic of China 287
  • Notes 300
  • 15: Romania 303
  • References 329
  • 16: Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States 331
  • References 350
  • References 350
  • 17: Audi Arabia 353
  • References 365
  • 18: Turkey 367
  • References 388
  • 19: The United Kingdom 391
  • References 410
  • 20: The United States 413
  • References 442
  • References 443
  • 21: Zambia 447
  • References 474
  • Index 477
  • About the Contributors 483
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