People's Republic of China
The People's Republic of China is situated in the southeastern part of the Eurasian continent, on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean. By territory the world's secondlargest country, China has a land area of about 9.6 million square kilometers, making up 6.5 percent of the earth's land mass.
China is a multinational country with the most people in the world. According to the results of the fourth national census carried out in July 1990, the population of the country was 1,160,017,381 ("The 1990 Census," 1990). The Han nationality made up approximately 94 percent of the total population. The agricultural population constituted around 80 percent. In the mainland's thirty provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities, each family had an average of 3.96 persons, and the sex ratio (female taken as 100) was 106.6 percent. The age distribution, based on the sampled sum of 10.01 percent from the 1990 census, was 27.70 percent children aged 0-14 years, 63.71 percent adolescents and adults aged 15-59 years, and 8.59 percent people 60 years and over (65 years and over, 5.58 percent).
China is one of the oldest countries with one of the world's earliest civilizations. It has a rich and ancient culture with about five thousand years of history. Yet it is quite young in experiencing the developments of modern industrialization and agriculture. The founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 ended the history of colonialism that had existed for more than ten decades. Through the work of more than thirty years, the Chinese people have made great progress in the development of industry, agriculture, science, and culture. The living standard of the people has also increased. The average yearly income per person increased from Renminbi (RMB) 57 yuan in 1952 to 601.5 yuan in 1989 for