International Handbook on Mental Health Policy

By Donna R. Kemp | Go to book overview

15
Romania

Sergiu Diacicov, Bogdana Tudorache, and Cezar I. Cîmpeanu


OVERVIEW

Romania has a population of 22,477,703 and an area of 91,699 square miles (237,500 square kilometers). It is located in the southeast of Europe. Romania borders Hungary to the northwest, former Yugoslavia to the southwest, Bulgaria to the south, the Black Sea to the southeast, and the former USSR to the east and north. Bucharest is the capital and the largest city.

Romania includes eight historic and geographic regions: Walachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania and parts of Bukovina, Crisana, Maramures, Dobruja, and Banat. Romania is divided into forty districts and the municipality of Bucharest. The Danube River, which forms part of the border with former Yugoslavia and almost all of the frontier with Bulgaria, traverses Romania in the southeast; its tributary, the Prut, constitutes most of the border with the former USSR. The Carpathian Mountains, of which the Transylvania Alps are a part, cut through Romania in a wide arc from north to southwest; the highest peaks are Moldoveanu (8,343 feet/2,543 meters) and Negoiu (8,317 feet/2,535 meters). The country's climate is continental, with hot, dry summers and cold winters; severe droughts are common during the summer.

The great majority of the inhabitants speak Romanian, although there are sizeable minorities that speak Hungarian and German. By far the largest religious body is the Romanian Orthodox Church ( International Geographic Encyclopedia and Atlas, 1990).

Romania consists primarily of ancient Dacia, which was a Roman province in the second and third centuries- A.D. After the Romans left the region, the area was overrun successively by the Goths, the Huns, the Avars, the Bulgars, and the Magyars. After a period of Mongol rule ( thirteenth century), the history of

-303-

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International Handbook on Mental Health Policy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Foreword xv
  • 1: An Overview of Mental Health Policy from an International Perspective 1
  • 2: Argentina 19
  • 3: Canada 45
  • Notes 65
  • References 65
  • 4: Chile 67
  • 5: India 79
  • References 106
  • 6: Israel 109
  • Notes 134
  • Notes 135
  • 7: Italy 139
  • References 154
  • 8: Japan 159
  • Notes 174
  • 9: Korea 177
  • Notes 195
  • 10: The Netherlands 197
  • Notes 215
  • New Zealand 217
  • 12: Nigeria 253
  • Notes 269
  • Pakistan 273
  • Notes 286
  • 14: People's Republic of China 287
  • Notes 300
  • 15: Romania 303
  • References 329
  • 16: Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States 331
  • References 350
  • References 350
  • 17: Audi Arabia 353
  • References 365
  • 18: Turkey 367
  • References 388
  • 19: The United Kingdom 391
  • References 410
  • 20: The United States 413
  • References 442
  • References 443
  • 21: Zambia 447
  • References 474
  • Index 477
  • About the Contributors 483
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