International Handbook on Mental Health Policy

By Donna R. Kemp | Go to book overview

21
Zambia

Alan Haworth


OVERVIEW

Geography and demography are important factors in determining the nature of mental health care in Zambia, and more so than in some other developing countries, with which, however, it also shares important characteristics. Zambia, known as Northern Rhodesia until its independence in 1964, is situated in south central Africa and is completely landlocked, being surrounded by Zaire, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, and Angola. Situated within the tropics, with a highly seasonal rainfall, it has recently experienced severe drought in its southern half. Although relatively large in area (752,614 square kilometers), its total population, based upon the 1990 census, is just over 7,818,500, but many parts are sparsely populated (density varying between 4 and 40 per square kilometer, with an average of 10.4--as compared with an average density of about 74 per square kilometer in Malawi and about 26 in Zimbabwe). Forty-two percent of the population is now resident in urban areas, a much higher proportion than in most African countries (in Tanzania, for example, the proportion is about 19 percent, and in Zimbabwe 25 percent). The low density of population and the inadequate road network contribute to the high cost of provision of services. As in most developing countries, there is a large child population, and 48.8 percent are below the age of fifteen years. The life expectancy at birth is 55.4 for males and 57.5 for females. The current population growth rate is 3.2 percent per annum overall, but the cities have shown spectacular growth. Thus Lusaka, the capital city, had an African population of only about 50,000 in 1954; ten years later it had about 150,000, when Zambia gained independence; the population was 400,000 at the time of a sample census in 1974; and it is currently estimated to be over 1.2 million.

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International Handbook on Mental Health Policy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Foreword xv
  • 1: An Overview of Mental Health Policy from an International Perspective 1
  • 2: Argentina 19
  • 3: Canada 45
  • Notes 65
  • References 65
  • 4: Chile 67
  • 5: India 79
  • References 106
  • 6: Israel 109
  • Notes 134
  • Notes 135
  • 7: Italy 139
  • References 154
  • 8: Japan 159
  • Notes 174
  • 9: Korea 177
  • Notes 195
  • 10: The Netherlands 197
  • Notes 215
  • New Zealand 217
  • 12: Nigeria 253
  • Notes 269
  • Pakistan 273
  • Notes 286
  • 14: People's Republic of China 287
  • Notes 300
  • 15: Romania 303
  • References 329
  • 16: Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States 331
  • References 350
  • References 350
  • 17: Audi Arabia 353
  • References 365
  • 18: Turkey 367
  • References 388
  • 19: The United Kingdom 391
  • References 410
  • 20: The United States 413
  • References 442
  • References 443
  • 21: Zambia 447
  • References 474
  • Index 477
  • About the Contributors 483
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