Brain and Values: Is a Biological Science of Values Possible

By Karl H. Pribram | Go to book overview

proportion of correct recalls drops off monotonically with serial position. This is exactly opposite to item recognition where recency predominates (see Fig. 2). Typical serial-position curves for recall are shown in Fig. 10, and the results for auditory and visual presentation are quite similar. Note that, at each serial position, the proportion of correct recalls is inversely proportional to list length.


Simulations

I have run a number of simulations to see if the chunking model can mimic these data, and it certainly can. Typical results are shown in Fig. 11. With one exception (Serial Position 6) the proportion of correct recalls is again proportional to list length.

For each list length we formed an n-chunk according to Eq. 3. We then unpacked the chunk item by item using the multiple-convolution algorithm. At each step in the process we scored the best match as the item recalled. If all matches were negative we scored on omission. What is retrieved at each step must enter into the retrieval cue for the next step. If the recall was successful we used the target item; otherwise we used whatever item had been recalled. For further details see Murdock ( 1995).

While the serial-position curves from these simulations were quite good, further analyses did reveal a problem. The error gradients either showed primacy or were approximately flat. In experimental data error gradients are usually sharply peaked around the target serial position ( Lee & Estes, 1977; Naime, 1991). One possible reason for this discrepancy is that experimental subjects group the longer lists into two chunks and the intrusions generally come from the appropriate chunks. In the simulations we used a single chunk even for the longest lists.


Summary

In this chapter I have presented a general account of TODAM, a theory of distributed associative memory that deals with the storage and retrieval of item, associative, and serial-order information. It attempts to explain behavioral data from psychological studies of short-term episodic memory. It is reasonably successful in explaining many patterns of data, and hopefully can be useful in understanding the role of memory in some of the broader issues that are the theme of this conference.


References

Anderson, J. A. ( 1970). "Two models for memory organization using interacting traces". Mathematical Biosciences, 8, 137-160.

Anderson, J. A. ( 1973). "A theory for the recognition of items from short memorized lists". Psychological Review, 80, 417-438.

Arbib, M. A. (Ed.). ( 1995). The handbook of brain theory and neural networks. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Barnes, J. M., & Underwood, B. J. ( 1959). "Fate" of first-list associations in transfer theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 97-105.

Borsellino, A., & Poggio, T. ( 1973). "Convolution and correlation algebras". Kybernetik, 122, 113-122.

Clarke, S. E., & Grunlund, S. D. ( 1996). "Global matching models of recognition memory: How the models match the data". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 37-60.

-308-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Brain and Values: Is a Biological Science of Values Possible
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 568

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.