But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle

By Glenn T. Eskew | Go to book overview

CHAPTER FOUR
The Local Movement

The formation of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights in 1956 marked a clear departure from traditional black protest in Birmingham and foreshadowed the nonviolent direct action tactics of the student sit-ins and Freedom Rides. Heretofore, the traditional Negro leadership class had petitioned and patiently negotiated with white officials in an often vain attempt to secure the barest of public services. Generally directed by the NAACP, black protest occurred as a symbolic gesture against segregation. Under the leadership of the Reverend Fred L. Shuttlesworth, the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights cast aside vocal protestations and rhetorical resolutions for dangerous physical contact with the white power structure. Though retaining the legalistic strategy of the NAACP, the ACMHR added an urgency evidenced by confrontational protest. The advent of nonviolent direct action radically altered race relations in Birmingham. One man stood out as the leader of the new black protest: the Reverend Fred L. Shuttlesworth.

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But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page ii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Acknowledgement xi
  • Introduction Stalemate 3
  • Chapter One - The National Movement 19
  • Chapter Two - Bombingham 53
  • Chapter Three - Bull's Birmingham 85
  • Chapter Four - The Local Movement 121
  • Chapter Five - Businessmen's Reform 153
  • Chapter Six - Momentum 193
  • Chapter Seven - Another Albany? 217
  • Chapter Eight - The Children's Crusade 259
  • Chapter Nine - But for Birmingham 299
  • Epilogue - Ambiguous Resolution 333
  • Notes 341
  • Bibliography 399
  • Index 419
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