But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle

By Glenn T. Eskew | Go to book overview

CHAPTER SEVEN
Another Albany?

Seven African American integrationists headed by the Reverend Abraham Woods Jr. entered Britling Cafeteria shortly after ten on the morning of April 3, 1963, sat down at the "whites only" lunch counter, and requested service. The Reverend Calvin Woods--Abraham's brother--led eight activists in a sit-in at Woolworth's. Similar demonstrations Occurred at the nearby Loveman's, Pizitz, and Kress stores. The volunteers for the protest were members of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. The sit-ins marked the beginning of a major drive to force a resolution of the long-standing stalemate in local race relations.

Workers at Britling's refused to take the orders of Reverend Woods, James Armstrong, and the others who sat down in the cafeteria; instead, store officials asked the integrationists to leave and pressed charges against them when they demurred. Before noon police arrested thirteen at Britling's. The other four lunch counters responded to the sit-ins by shutting down the griddles and sending the cooks home. The five demonstrators with Calvin Woods and ACMHR choir director Carlton Reese waited at

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But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page ii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Acknowledgement xi
  • Introduction Stalemate 3
  • Chapter One - The National Movement 19
  • Chapter Two - Bombingham 53
  • Chapter Three - Bull's Birmingham 85
  • Chapter Four - The Local Movement 121
  • Chapter Five - Businessmen's Reform 153
  • Chapter Six - Momentum 193
  • Chapter Seven - Another Albany? 217
  • Chapter Eight - The Children's Crusade 259
  • Chapter Nine - But for Birmingham 299
  • Epilogue - Ambiguous Resolution 333
  • Notes 341
  • Bibliography 399
  • Index 419
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