But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle

By Glenn T. Eskew | Go to book overview

CHAPTER EIGHT
The Children's Crusade

Just as the spring demonstrations appeared to collapse for want of volunteers, civil rights activists discovered an untapped resource with potential to tip the scale on behalf of the movement. For five weeks the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference had waged a joint campaign against racial discrimination in an attempt to force a resolution of Birmingham's long-standing crisis in race relations. During April 1963 more than three hundred integrationists from the ACMHR and black student associations had faced arrest after participating in sit-ins at downtown lunch counters, picketing in department stores, and marching in illegal parades. Yet the local movement had given all it had and could offer little more. The image of Martin Luther King had failed to attract the needed new blood to keep the campaign in the public's eye. A divided black community further complicated matters as the traditional Negro leadership class publicly repudiated the authority of King and Fred Shuttlesworth. Nearly everything pointed to another Albany, another failure. As

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But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page ii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Acknowledgement xi
  • Introduction Stalemate 3
  • Chapter One - The National Movement 19
  • Chapter Two - Bombingham 53
  • Chapter Three - Bull's Birmingham 85
  • Chapter Four - The Local Movement 121
  • Chapter Five - Businessmen's Reform 153
  • Chapter Six - Momentum 193
  • Chapter Seven - Another Albany? 217
  • Chapter Eight - The Children's Crusade 259
  • Chapter Nine - But for Birmingham 299
  • Epilogue - Ambiguous Resolution 333
  • Notes 341
  • Bibliography 399
  • Index 419
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