For Crying out Loud: Women's Poverty in the United States

By Diane Dujon; Ann Withorn | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
By 1988, labor force participation (LFP) rates of married women with children under one were already 50.5 percent for whites and 71.5 percent for blacks (51.9 percent overall) ( Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1990, p. 385). In light of recent data on the rising trend in lip for this group (the latest historically to enter the labor force), rates are certainly higher now. Working has become the norm.
2.
The heavy concentration of black women in female-dominated occupations is discussed in Malveaux and Wallace ( 1987) and Malveaux ( 1985). Catanzarite's ( 1990) analysis of national data for the 1970s suggests that Latinas may have occupied an intermediate position between black and white women in occupational segregation; that is, they appear to have been concentrated in better jobs than black women, but worse positions than whites. The relative positions of blacks and Latinas may have flipped with the recent increase in immigration.
3.
The area includes Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura counties. The Census file is the 5 percent Public Use Microdata Sample. The sample is comprised of 98,896 women, ages 20-64.
4.
These figures are obtained by dividing minority women's poverty rates by those for white women.
5.
Recall that the sample is limited to working-age women: 20 to 64 year-olds.

References

Amott, Teresa, and Julie Matthaei. 1986. "Comparable Worth, Incomparabl~e Pay" in Rochelle Lefkowitz and Ann Withorn (eds.), For Crying OutLoud.Women and Poverty in the United States. New York: Pilgrim Press, pp. 314-23.

Bane, Mary Jo. 1986. "Household Composition and Poverty" in Sheldon Danziger and Daniel Weinberg (eds.), Fighting Poverty-What Works and What Doesn't. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 209-31.

Catanzarite, Lisa. 1990. job Cbaracteristics and Occupational Segregation by Genderand Racel Ethnicity. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Catanzarite, Lisa, and Vilma Ortiz. 1995. "Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Impact of Work and Family on Women's Poverty". Researcb in Politics and Society. vol. 5, pp. 217-37.

Dill, Bonnie Thornton, Lynn Weber Cannon, and Reeve Vanneman. 1987. "Race and Gender in Occupational Segregation" in "National Committee on Pay Equity", Pay Equity.- An Issue of Race, Ethnicity and Sex. Washington, D.C.: National Committee on Pay Equity, pp. 11-70.

Ehrenreich, Barbara. 1986. "What Makes Women Poor?" in Rochelle Lefkowitz and Ann Withorn (eds.), For Crying Out Loud. Women andPoverty in the United States

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