By 1988, labor force participation (LFP) rates of married women with
children under one were already 50.5 percent for whites and 71.5 percent
for blacks (51.9 percent overall) ( Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1990, p. 385). In light of recent data on the rising trend in lip for this
group (the latest historically to enter the labor force), rates are certainly
higher now. Working has become the norm.
The heavy concentration of black women in female-dominated occupations is discussed in Malveaux and Wallace ( 1987) and Malveaux ( 1985). Catanzarite's ( 1990) analysis of national data for the 1970s suggests that
Latinas may have occupied an intermediate position between black and
white women in occupational segregation; that is, they appear to have
been concentrated in better jobs than black women, but worse positions
than whites. The relative positions of blacks and Latinas may have flipped
with the recent increase in immigration.
The area includes Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and
Ventura counties. The Census file is the 5 percent Public Use Microdata
Sample. The sample is comprised of 98,896 women, ages 20-64.
These figures are obtained by dividing minority women's poverty rates
by those for white women.
Recall that the sample is limited to working-age women: 20 to 64
Julie Matthaei. 1986. "Comparable Worth, Incomparabl~e
Rochelle Lefkowitz and
Ann Withorn (eds.), For Crying OutLoud.Women and Poverty in the United States. New York: Pilgrim Press, pp. 314-23.
Bane, Mary Jo. 1986. "Household Composition and Poverty" in
Daniel Weinberg (eds.), Fighting Poverty-What Works and
What Doesn't. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 209-31.
Catanzarite, Lisa. 1990. job Cbaracteristics and Occupational Segregation by
Genderand Racel Ethnicity. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology,
Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Catanzarite, Lisa, and
Vilma Ortiz. 1995. "Racial/Ethnic Differences in the
Impact of Work and Family on Women's Poverty". Researcb in Politics
and Society. vol. 5, pp. 217-37.
Lynn Weber Cannon, and
Reeve Vanneman. 1987. "Race and Gender in Occupational Segregation" in "National Committee
on Pay Equity", Pay Equity.- An Issue of Race, Ethnicity and Sex. Washington, D.C.: National Committee on Pay Equity, pp. 11-70.
Barbara. 1986. "What Makes Women Poor?" in
Ann Withorn (eds.), For Crying Out Loud. Women andPoverty in the United States