For Crying out Loud: Women's Poverty in the United States

By Diane Dujon; Ann Withorn | Go to book overview
children in question were considered dependent because their parent(s) could not support them; yet other children were deemed dependent precisely because their parents did support them.
10.
Studies of welfare done in the 1940s still used the word dependents only in the sense of those supported by family heads; see, for example, Brown 1940; Howard 1943; Bruno 1948.
11.
Starting in the 1960s increasing numbers of black women were able to claim AFDC, but prior to that they were largely excluded. At first, the language of the New Deal followed the precedent of earlier programs in applying the term dependent to children. De facto, however, the recipients of ADC were virtually exclusively solo mothers. Between the 1940s and 1960s the term's reference gradually shifted from the children to their mothers.
12.
Men on "general relief" are sometimes also included in that designation; their treatment by the welfare system is usually as bad or worse.
13.
For a fuller discussion of the social control critique, see Gordon 1990. On needs claims, see Fraser 1990 and Nelson 1990.
14.
For an argument that Clinton's recent neoliberal discourse continues to individualize dependency, see Fraser 1993.

References

Abbott, Edith, and Sophonisba P. Breckinridge. 1921. The Administration of the Aid-to-Mothers Law in Illinois. Publication no. 82. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Children's Bureau.

Alcoff, Linda. 1990. "Feminist Politics and Foucault: The Limits to a Collaboration". In Crisis in Continental Philosophy, ed. Arleen B. Dallery and Charles E. Scott, 69-96. Albany: SUNY Press.

American Psychiatric Association. 1987. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed. revised. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

Bakke, E. Wight. 1940a. Citizens Without Work: A Study of the Effects of Unemployment Upon Workers' Social Relations and Practices. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

-----. 1940b. The Unemployed Worker: A Study of the Task of Making a Living Without a Job. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Barnes, Annie S. 1987. Single Parents in Black America. A Study in Culture and Legitimacy. Bristol, Conn.: Wyndham Hall.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

----- 1990a. In Other Words, trans. Matthew Adamson. Oxford: Polity.

----- 1990b. The Logic of Practice, trans. Richard Nice. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Boydston, Jeanne. 1991. Home and Work: Housework, Wages, and theIdeology of Labor in the Early Republic.

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