The demands of our increasingly complex world make the ability to think clearly more necessary than ever before. Evidence that it is possible to enhance critical thinking skills is presented along with a framework for applying these skills. The attitude or disposition to think critically is as important as the skills.
Practical guidelines for improving the ability to learn, retain, and recall information are presented along with several memory aids.
When language is used appropriately, it can clarify muddy thinking, but when language is misused, it can mislead the thinking process. Persuasive appeals are used to sell products and ideologies by manipulating how and what we think. Critical thinkers can recognize and defend against persuasive tactics. General procedures to help readers comprehend complex text are also presented in this chapter.
The rules for "if, then" and linear-reasoning problems are provided with realistic examples. These are helpful aids for improving the critical thinking process when dealing with contingencies and spatial reasoning problems.