Vernacular Literacy: A Re-Evaluation

By R. B. Le Page; Penelope Gardner Chloros et al. | Go to book overview

APPENDIX
Excerpt from OXFAM (1993: 2-4)

Women have been at the epicentre of the social crisis caused by Africa's economic decline. With their multiple roles in production, motherhood and in household labour, African women commonly work between 16 and 18 hours daily. This excessive work burden is one of the major reasons for their poor health status--and the demands on their time are increasing. Falling household incomes have forced women to work longer hours, often taking on two or more occupations; to allocate additional time and energy in finding cheap foods and gathering fuelwood (as kerosene becomes too costly); and to spend more time and money tending sick children. Meeting these demands has forced women to sacrifice the only two resources available: their sleep and already virtually non-existent leisure time. Women's employment conditions have also deteriorated. Already less likely than men to be employed in formal sector employment, women are more than twice as likely to be laid-off. This has a negative impact on their ability to care for themselves and their children. The growing informal sector has provided a cushion of sorts, as women try to meet family survival needs. But work in the informal sector produces low returns for long hours, and is often undertaken in unsafe and insanitary conditions, with attendant implications for women's health.


Health and Education

Pressure on governments to cut back on social expenditure, such as schools, hospitals, and housing, has compounded the plight of the poor. By 1990, two-thirds of African governments were spending less on health in per capita terms than in 1980. Infrastructure for health care has visibly deteriorated as a result, especially in rural areas. Budget pressure has also prompted governments to recoup costs by increasing charges--or 'user fees'--for health and education services. Both the World Bank and the IMF have backed this approach on the grounds of efficiency, but the effect has been to put many services beyond the means of the poorest groups. In countries such as Ghana and Nigeria, the indiscriminate or poorly-targeted introduction of user fees caused a contraction in demand for services, especially preventative services such as immunisation and ante-natal care.

Reduced access to already inadequate health provision would have dire consequences at any time. In the midst of a recession, where the brunt of costs is falling on the poor, it has been a prescription for catastrophe. In the Zambian capital of Lusaka, epidemics of diseases such as cholera and typhoid, conditions that were not life-threatening on a large scale a decade ago, are claiming an increasing number of lives. Malaria, once subdued, is returning as a major hazard. In West Africa diseases such as yellow fever, which had been almost eradicated, are gaining ground again. And the incidence of potentially fatal respiratory and diarrhoeal infection among infants is increasing across the region.

-328-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Vernacular Literacy: A Re-Evaluation
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 374

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.