Background for the Matrix
Production Models and Identifying
the Matrix Language
This chapter has two purposes. First, it develops independent motivation for the major arguments of the Matrix Language-Frame model to be presented in Chapters 4 and 5. Such motivation comes from psycholinguistic research on several fronts, but especially from research on speech errors as it relates to language production models. Additional motivation comes from studies of patients with certain types of aphasia. Both these sources show a difference in the way closed-class and open-class morphemes (i.e. system versus content morphemes) are accessed in monolingual speech production. Finally, other psycholinguistic studies on bilingual speech offer further motivation for the MLF model.
Second, the chapter contains another preliminary to the MLF model: the identification of the matrix language (ML) as opposed to the embedded language (EL) in CS utterances is discussed. The sociolinguistic and dynamic nature of the ML is also addressed.
Psycholinguistic models of language production, as well as neurolinguistic studies of brain-damaged patients, support the major claims of the MLF model. This support comes in four areas: (1) the pre-eminence of one language over the other during language processing by bilinguals; (2) the distinction between the behavior of system and content morphemes in speech errors; (3) other distinctions regarding these morphemes in patients with Broca's aphasia; and (4) the possibility of each language