Primary-A verb types
This chapter deals with literal meanings of Primary-A verbs, with roles filled by NPs that have CONCRETE heads. As mentioned before, some Primary-A verbs do have secondary, metaphorical meanings, with other kinds of NP (or even a complement clause) as subject or object (e.g. John's having got the job quite threw me i.e. 'discomfited me'). However, these are almost all idiosyncratic to particular verbs so that no generalisations are possible across a type or subtype.
These two types have a number of subtypes which show pervasive semantic and syntactic parallels, so that they can usefully be considered together.
The role common to all MOTION verbs is (thing) Moving (e.g. Mary ran) and to all REST verbs (thing) Resting (e.g. John knelt). There may also be specification of Locus--the place of rest, or place with respect to which motion takes place. For some verbs specification of Locus is obligatory, e.g. He resides in town; for others it is optional, e.g. John stood (on the stone).
An NP in Locus role is most often marked by the appropriate preposition. As noted in §2.5 such place adverbal NPs are semantically linked to the MOTION/REST verb and should be placed after the predicate (whereas place adverbs with verbs from other types may occur sentence-initially or medially). Certain MOTION verbs may allow the preposition to be omitted, a slight semantic difference then resulting, e.g. He jumped (over) the river, She climbed (up) the mountain. It is also possible in certain circumstances to omit a preposition before a measure phrase, e.g. He ran (for) a mile. Conditions for omitting the preposition, and the