Economic Development and Environmental Protection in Latin America

By Joseph S. Tulchin | Go to book overview

11
Issues in East-West
Debt-for-Nature Swaps:
The Case of Poland

Richard A. Liroff

Debt-for-nature swaps may shift direction in the future, as existing North-South swaps are joined by East-West swaps. Poland may be the first Eastern bloc country where a swap is executed.The Western partner for such a swap remains uncertain, although Sweden, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States have shown interest.Some of the institutional, programmatic, and financial issues that must be addressed in the context of a debt swap for Poland are examined below. Key questions involve what will be funded, who will be the Polish partner, and at what exchange rate a swap will take place. The sweeping political changes presently occurring in Poland, and the fundamental economic restructuring that must occur, heighten the uncertainty surrounding a swap.


Poland—An Economic and Environmental Disaster Area

The environmental situation in Poland is bleak. As summarized in The Washington Post:

In Poland, regions covering ... 11 percent of the country's land area and including one-third of the national population were declared environmentally endangered by a comprehensive study by the National Academy of Science.... Six million people were said to be living in "environmental disaster areas." ... Half of the country's total forest area is threatened by air pollution.

Ninety-five percent of the river water in Poland is now unfit for drinking, half of the lakes have been irreversibly contaminated, and more than three-quarters of drinking water sources do not meet official standards of purity, according to Polish scientists. Warsaw and Tirana, Albania, are the only capital cities in Europe that do not treat their

____________________
Richard A. Liroff is senior associate for Eastern Europe for the Conservation Foundation.

-81-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Economic Development and Environmental Protection in Latin America
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 143

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.