The Prospects for Communist China

By W. W. Rostow. | Go to book overview

CHRONOLOGY
THE CHINESE EMPIRE
1848-1865 Great Taiping Peasant Rebellion
1890-1898 Peaceful reform movements
1895 Sun Yat-sen's first revolutionary attempt
1901 Boxer Rebellion
1905 Sun Yat-sen exiled (to Japan)
Sun Yat-sen's first statement of the Three Principles of the
People ( San Min Chu I) and foundation of the T'ung Meng
Hui revolutionary society
1905-1908 Anti-foreign boycotts
1906 Manchu recognition of "constitutional principle"
1911 Collapse of Manchu regime
THE CHINESE REPUBLIC
KuomintangChinese Communist Party
(KMT) ( CCP)
1912 February 12. Chinese Repub-
lic proclaimed: Sun Yat-sen
proclaimed President, but
yields position to Yuan Shih-
kai. KMT party succeeds
T'ung Meng Hui.
1916 Sun Yat-sen succeeds to presi-
dency on death of Yuan Shih-
kai.
(A period of ineffectual at-
tempts to unify China, dur-
ing which Sun Yat-sen un-
successfully sought substan-
tial assistance from Britain
and the United States.)
1919 Marxist study groups appear,
their most prominent leader
Ch'en Tu-hsiu, at Peking Uni-
versity.
1920 P'eng Pai emerges as Commu-
nist peasant leader. Comin-
tern sends two agents to China
to contact Chinese Commu-
nists.
1921 Sun Yat-sen is offered the co- 1921 July. Chinese Communist
operation of the Comintern. Party founded at its First Con-
(A period of indecision gress in Shanghai, and decides
while Sun Yat-sen considers on unofficial cooperation with
and negotiates CommunistKMT.
support.)
1923 Sun Yat-sen concludes agree- 1923 CCP officially joins with Kuo-
ment with Soviet Ambassador mintang.
Joffe for Comintern assistance; (A period during which the
and Borodin arrives as adviser Communists really consti-
to Sun to reorganize KMT. tute left wing of the Kuo-
Sun sends Chiang Kai-shek to mintang.)
Moscow to observe Soviet
methods.
1925 March 12. Sun Yat-sen dies.
Chiang Kai-shek becomes nom-
inal Kuomintang leader.
1926 March 20. Chiang Kai-shek consolidates his effectual control of KMT
by arresting political workers in army, seizing pro-Communist leaders
and Soviet advisers in Canton, thus foreshadowing the end of KMT-
CCP cooperation.
1926 The Northern Expedition to 1926 CCP fails to capture leader-
the Yangtze begins in July. ship of industrial strikes in
KMT armies have great suc Canton, Hong Kong, Shang-
cess. hai, etc.
December. KMT government
moves from Canton to Han-
kow. A time of peasant move-
ments and strikes.
1927 March 24. KMT enters Nan-
king.
March 26. KMT enters
Shanghai.
Northern Expedition peters
out, with negotiated unifica-
tion of China under Chiang
Kai-shek.
April 12. Chiang Kai-shek crushes the Communist-led unions in
Shanghai, decisively terminating any semblance of CCP participation
in his regime. "Nationalist Government" set up in Nanking.
July 15. Peasant revolt crushed.
Chiang firmly in power.
1927 December 11-13. After fail-
ure to seize and hold Canton,
Communists gather in the
south.
1928 First Chinese Communist army
formed under Chu Teh and
Mao Tse-tung.
1931 (Japanese invade Manchuria)
(The period of Chiang's war 1931 November 7. Chinese Soviet
to consolidate the rest of Republic proclaimed at Jui-
China and defeat the Com Chin (Kiangsi). It controls 6
munists while Japan consoli districts. It declares war on
dates occupation of Man Japan.
churia.) 1932- Chu-Mao combination achieves
1933 leadership of Communist
movement.
1934 November 10. Chinese Soviet
Republic dies, its control over
the 6 districts broken by
Chiang's victories; the Long
March begins.
1935 Long March ends in Shensi;
Communists build army and
consolidate peasant support.
1936 December. Chiang kidnaped 1936 December. Communists, Chou
at Sian when his troops de En-lai as spokesman, and
mand to fight Japanese in Chiang Kai-shek negotiate
stead of Communists. United Front against Japanese.
1937 (July. Beginning of war with Japan)
(The period of ostensible collaboration of the CCP and KMT in the
United Front against the Japanese)
1938 Nationalist government moves
to Chungking in 1938.
1941 January. Communist Fourth Army incident, in effect, terminates
United Front.
1941 Communists begin reconsoli-
dating their hold in North
China.
1942 Cheng Feng party reform
movement launched by Mao
Tse-tung. Initiation of vari-
ous party reform movements
which continued through 1950.
(Period of Communist ex-
tension of control over some
300,000 square miles and
95,000,000 people.)
1945 Confirmation of Yalta provi-
sions by Sino-Soviet Treaty.
1946- Marshall Mission: its failure marks official end of KMT-CCP collab-
1947 oration (or truce), and the resumption of civil war.
1949 October 1. Promulgation of the People's Republic (Communist) of
China with capitol at Peking.
1949 September 29. Promulgation
of the Common Program (the
basic policies for Communist
China).
December 7. Chiang Kai-shek
goes to Formosa.
THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
(Communist)
Internal External
1950 April 30. The Marriage Law. 1950 February 14. Sino-Soviet
Basic attack on old family sys Treaty of Alliance.
tem.
June 29. Trade Union Law.
June 30. Agrarian Reform
Law. Major instrument for
land redistribution which con-
tinued until the spring of
1953.
November 26. Chinese enter
the Korean War.
1951 February 21. Regulations of
the People's Republic of China
for Punishment of counter-
revolutionaries which went on
until superseded by "Provi-
sional Methods for Control of
Counter-Revolutionaries" of
June 1952. (These control
methods still continue to be
publicized and employed.)
March 14. Proclamation con-
cerning the Popularization
and Intensification of the Re-
sist ACmerica Aid Korea Prop-
aganda throughout the coun-
try. (Campaign, with many
smaller subsidiaries, continued
through the spring of 1954.)
May. Production Increase and 1951 May. Tibet occupied by Chi-
Economy Drive initiated by nese troops.
Kao Kang in Manchuria, grad-
ually spread from there to
South.
July 10. Truce negotiations
begin at Kaesong, Korea (fol-
lowing Malik speech of June
23 in U.N.).
October. The 3-Anti, 5-Anti
Movements. The 3-Anti part
of party reform and reorgani-
zation; 5-Anti major urban
movement against business
class. (Continued to June
1952.)
1952 December. Chou En-lai an- 1952 February. Chou En-lai makes
nounces First Five Year Plan germ warfare charges.
for 1953-1957 (extended to
1959). Major move toward
industrializing China.
1953 March. Sino-Soviet Trade
Agreement.
1953 October 1. New "General July 27. Korean War Armi-
Line" of Transition to Social stice signed.
ism announced. Major pro-
gram for 1954: (a) November
23. "Order of Government
Administrative Council for En-
forcement of Planned Pur-
chase and Planned Supply of
Grain." (b) December 16.
Decision on the Development
of Agrarian Production Coop-
eratives.
December. New Bond Drive.
1954 June. Draft Constitution of 1954 April-July. Geneva Confer-
the People's Republic of China ence on Korea and Indo-
issued. (Includes abolition of China. First entry of Com-
6 administrative regions.) munist China into a great
power conference.

-xv-

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