O NE OF THE MOST PLEASANT OF ALL SCHOLARLY DUTIES is acknowledging the courtesy and assistance of those who have helped in the various stages of one's labors. My friend and teacher, William E. Leuchtenburg of Columbia University, has worked with me through more drafts than either one of us wishes to remember. His guidance and his criticism undoubtedly account for much of whatever merit this book has. Professors John A. Garraty and Stuart Bruchey, also of Columbia, made me question and re-examine many of my premises and biases; while they may not fully agree with all of my conclusions, they have saved me from many serious errors, and I am grateful for their advice.
When I first began my research, I profited greatly from conversations with Louis R. Galambos and Gabriel Kolko, who helped me to understand many of the problems of business-government relations in the Progressive Era. While I disagree with some of Professor Kolko's hypotheses, I believe that in the main he has come closer than anyone in delineating the business orientation of progressive politics. Professor Arthur M. Johnson of Harvard Business School read an early draft of this manuscript, and his criticisms helped me clear away many inconsistencies. For assistance on material related to labor problems, I am indepted to David Brody, now at the University of California at Davis. Mr. Robert Hessen, who is currently working on a much-