Measurement in Physical Education

By Donald K. Mathews; Nancy Allison Close | Go to book overview

meeting the program objectives. Because of the stable nature of strength, the test results are reliable and objective. The fact that strength is related to ability in skills and is affected by organic drains and to some extent by emotional disturbances lends validity to these tests.

In almost any measuring instrument devised for use with human beings, shortcomings are always present. This is true with the strength tests that have been presented in this chapter. It would be foolhardy not to recognize the limitations accompanying each test. However, it is just as reckless not to measure at all, merely because a test is not perfect. Think, for example, of the skiers who will sit in front of the fire in the evening by the hour and argue over the advantages of various waxes and combinations that should be used, depending upon the snow conditions. Certainly, they all do not agree. However, by the same token, because of obvious shortcomings in certain waxing combinations, the skiers do not throw away the waxes and ski on bare boards. After all, the value of skiing goes beyond the type of wax used. So too, in physical education we should concern ourselves more with the program that results from testing, and not so much with the test.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Amar, J.: The Human Motor. New York, E. P. Dutton & Co., 1920.

2. Cannon, W. B.: The Wisdom of the Body. Revised ed. New York, W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1939.

3. Chamberlain, C. G., and Smiley, D. F.: "Functional Health and the Physical Fitness Index". Research Quart., Vol. 2, March, 1931.

4. Clarke, H. Harrison: A Manual: Cable-Tension Strength Tests. Chicopee, Massachusetts, Brown-Murphy Co., 1953.

5. Clarke, H. Harrison: Application of Measurement to Health and Physical Education. 4th ed. New York, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967, p. 171.

6. Clarke, H. Harrison, and Carter, Gavin H.: "Oregon Simplification of the Strength and Physical Fitness Indices for Upper Elementary, Junior High, and Senior High School Boys". Research Quart., March, 1959.

7. Crile, G. W.: Man, an Adaptive Mechanism. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1916.

8. Fitness of American Youth. J. Am. A. Health, Physical Education, Recreation, September, 1956, p. 20.

9. Fox, Margaret G., and Atwood, Janet: Results of Testing Iowa School Children for Health and Fitness. J. Am. A. Health, Physical Education, Recreation, September, 1955, p. 20.

10. Hernlund, V. F.: "The Selection of Physical Tests for Measuring Y.M.C.A. Secretaries". Supplement to Research Quart., March, 1935, pp. 235-241.

11. Karpovich, Peter V., and Sinning, Wayne E.: Physiology of Muscular Activity. 7th ed. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1971, p. 281.

12. Knuttgen, Howard G.: "Comparison of Fitness of Danish and American School Children". Research Quart., 32:190-196, 1961.

13. Kraus, Hans, and Hirschland, Ruth P.: "Minimum Muscular Fitness Tests in School Children". Research Quart., 25:177-188, 1954.

14. Kraus, Hans, and Hirschland, Ruth P.: "Muscular Fitness and Orthopedic Disability". New York State J. Med. 54:212-215, 1954.

15. Kraus, Hans, Prudden, Bonnie, Weber, Sonja, and Hirscham, Kurt: HypokineticDisease: Role of Inactivity in Production of Disease. Institute for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

-107-

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Measurement in Physical Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • Chapter 1 Approach to Measurement and Evaluation 1
  • Bibliography 23
  • Chapter 2 Test Selection 25
  • Chapter 3 Analysis of Test Scores 33
  • Bibliography 71
  • Chapter 4 Measuring Strength 72
  • Bibliography 107
  • Chapter 5 Motor Fitness Tests 109
  • Bibliography 156
  • Chapter 6 General Motor Ability 157
  • Bibliography 201
  • Chapter 7 Sports Skill Testing 204
  • Bibliography 228
  • Chapter 8 Cardiovascular Tests 229
  • Bibliography 258
  • Chapter 9 Nutritional Measurements and Somatotype 260
  • Bibliography 295
  • Chapter 10 Evaluation of Body Mechanics 297
  • Introduction 297
  • Bibliography 336
  • Chapter 11 Evaluation of Social Development 338
  • Bibliography 358
  • Chapter 12 Sports Knowledge Tests 360
  • Bibliography 372
  • Chapter 13 Marking in Physical Education 374
  • Bibliography 390
  • Chapter 14 Organization and Administration of the Measurement Program 391
  • Bibliography 404
  • Appendix a Table of Square Roots of Numbers from 1 to 1000 405
  • Appendix B Suggested Laboratory Exercises 416
  • Appendix C the New Britain System 420
  • Appendix D Norms for Aahper Youth Fitness Test 428
  • Appendix E Norms for Kirchner Motor Fitness Test 452
  • Appendix F Norms for Oregon Motor Fitness Test 456
  • Index 463
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