are the most commonly employed. The primary problem in using attitude scales is validity. The Adams scale for measuring attitude toward physical education is contained in this chapter and may be used with either high school or college students.
Perhaps one of the most recent and encouraging advances in techniques of evaluation in the area of social efficiency is the use of sociometry. This type of evaluation appears to be extremely well adapted for use in physical education because of the numerous group activities of which the program is composed. In identifying the overly aggressive, the rejected, and the leaders in a group, the instructor is made more aware of group structure and interaction, and hence is better equipped to organize groups effectively and to plan individual programs for those children in need of recognition or a feeling of belonging to the group.
This chapter could hardly be complete without the fine summary paragraph from Gladys Scott's article, "The Contributions of Physical Activity to Psychological Development."14
There is perhaps no area of our professional background that offers more challenge to us than psychological development. The challenge is multiple. We need a better background in general psychology, personality development, social psychology, and cultural anthropology. We need to develop research competencies in these areas and to pursue our understandings of prophylactic and therapeutic contributions of experiences in motor skills. As teachers and administrators, we must be ready to modify our practice in line with new evidence.
1. Adams, R. S.: "Two Scales for Measuring Attitude Toward Physical Education". Research Quart., March, 1963, p. 91.
2. Best, John W.: Research and Education. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1959, p. 156.
3. Blanchard, B. E.: "A Behavior Frequency Rating Scale for the Measurement of Character and Personality in Physical Education Classroom Situations". Research Quart., Vol. 7, No. 2, May, 1936.
4. Bonney, Merl E., and Fessenden, Seth A.: Manual Bonney-Fessenden Sociograph. California Test Bureau, Los Angeles, California, 1955.
5. Bonney, Warren C., and Burleson, Reba M.: Socializing Techniques. J. A. A. Health, Phys. Educ. & Recreation, March, 1954.
6. Cowell, Charles C.: "The Contributions of Physical Activity to Psychological Development". Research Quart., 31:2, 286, Pt. II, March, 1960.
7. Jaeger, Eloise M., and Slocum, Helen M.: "Physical Education Teachers Contributions to Guidance in Minnesota Secondary Schools". Research Quart., Vol. 27, No. 1, March, 1956.
8. Jennings, Helen: Sociometry in Group Relations. American Council on Education, 1948.
9. Jones, Harold E.: Motor Performance and Growth. Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press, 1949.