The Conversion Survey 1997 is the second annual review of global disarmament and conversion prepared by the Bonn International Center for Conversion. The inaugural edition, the Conversion Survey 1996, provided an overview of six issue areas of conversion, as well as an index of the extent of disarmament, demilitarization, demobilization and conversion (BIC3D) occurring worldwide. This edition focuses on one of these issue areas: surplus weapons. The update chapter of this year's survey provides the latest figures for the BIC3D Index as well as an overview summarizing events in the other five issue areas.
The book is a collective effort by the staff of BICC. All chapters were reviewed and revised in light of group discussions. Joseph DiChiaro III, project leader for BICC's surplus weapons project, was involved in planning the book and wrote the Introduction, Chapter 5 and the section on landmines in Chapter 3. Cynthia Miller, responsible for a project on destruction of chemical weapons in Russia, authored Chapter 4. Herbert Wulf, director of BICC, wrote Chapter 2 and coauthored Chapter 6. Michael Brzoska, in addition to being in charge of planning the book, was also the principal author of the Update and Chapter 1, coauthored Chapter 6, contributed to the Introduction and prepared the data for the Appendix including the BIC3D Index. Chapter 3 was largely written by a close associate of BICC, Edward J. Laurance of the Monterey Institute of International Studies. The section on military expenditures for the Update was authored by Jörn Brömmelhörster, who also wrote on France in the Update and China in Chapter 1, and Michael Dedek; the section on demobilization and reintegration by Kees Kingma; and the section on base closures and redevelopment by Keith Cunningham. Ksenia Gonchar authored pieces on Russia (except on military expenditures) for the Update and some other parts of the book.
Klaus Rodenberg, Sabrina Colell and Alexandra Topel of BICC's documentation and library department helped in the search for background information. Kees Kingma was assisted in data collection by Garry Gehyigon. Robert Mann assisted Keith Cunningham in the preparation of the base closure section of the Update. Ulrike Lindemann and Ulrich Schirowski provided additional material for use in that section. Stacy Larsen added information on Ukraine for Chapter 1. Sebastian Esser assisted in data assembly for the Appendix and prepared the Country and Regional Index. Virtually the entire staff was involved in the preparation of this book in one way or the other.
Special thanks are due to Moira Davidson-Seger for her thorough editing and Corinna Hauswedell for editorial coordination.
A number of background papers were written for this survey and proved very helpful in the preparation of the chapters. The places where background papers have been used are noted in the chapters. However, responsibility for use of outside contributions, and any resulting errors, is with the survey's authors. BICC is grateful for the time and effort spent by outside contributors in answering specific questions. Background papers will be available on BICC's Internet server.
In addition, numerous colleagues from around the world have supplied information and guidance on particular items. Although not all can be mentioned here, chapter authors would like to specifically thank Paul George, Gerd Hagmeyer-Gaverus, Michael Klare, Almuth Klein, Milton Leitenberg, Peter Lock, Penny McKenzie, Ron Manley, Sarah Meek, Laurie Nathan, Donna Phelan, Julian Perry Robinson, Jürgen Scheffran, Yitzhak Shichor, Elisabeth Sköns, Chris Smith, Volker Starrock, Thomas Stock, Peter Wilke and Jean Pascal Zanders. Of course, none of the named is responsible for any errors contained in this book.
BICC gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Joyce-Mertz Gilmore Foundation and the Volkswagen-Stiftung in support of its work on surplus weapons. The German Foreign Office and NATO helped to finance a conference on surplus weapon issues in Bonn in May 1996, during which many of the issues of weapon destruction were discussed. Special thanks are due to the Ministry of Higher Education and Research of North Rhine-Westphalia for the continuing support of BICC's research activities.
Bonn, January 1997 Herbert Wulf
BICC Conversion Survey 1997 prepared by
Michael Brzoska, project leader
Authors: Jörn Brömmelhörster, Michael Brzoska, Keith Cunningham, Michael Dedek, Joseph DiChiaro III, Ksenia Gonchar, Kees Kingma, Edward J. Laurance, Cynthia Miller, Herbert Wulf
Editing: Moira Davidson-Seger
Design: Hansen WA, Cologne