Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin

By Rainer Münz | Go to book overview

Introduction

Rainer Münz and Myron Weiner

Geographic and social mobility are crucial elements characterizing open societies. Democratic societies uphold the right of their citizens to choose their places of residence and places of work, including the right to emigrate to another country. In contrast, totalitarian regimes prevent their citizens from emigrating or even traveling abroad, or force them to settle in certain areas and take up assigned jobs while excluding them from other economic opportunities. During the cold war these restrictions were a source of conflict between East and West. Communist countries rightly feared a mass exodus of dissatisfied citizens, while many people living under communist rule secretly hoped for an opportunity to leave. The Western countries, for their part, made it a point to keep their borders open for migrants from Communist countries, as well as for some of the refugees from other countries with authoritarian regimes or civil wars, such as Chile, El Salvador, and Iran.

The perspective changed dramatically with the fall of the iron curtain, the disappearance of the Soviet Union, and the end of the cold war. Now, many governments of East Central and Eastern Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, and Latin America regard the possibility of their citizens emigrating to Western Europe or the United States as an opportunity for reducing unemployment, earning remittances, and reducing demographic pressures. The response in

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Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Chapter 1 the Impact of German Policy on Refugee Flows from Former Yugoslavia 1
  • Notes 27
  • References 30
  • Chapter 2 the Impact of U.S. Policy on Migration from Mexico and the Caribbean 35
  • Notes 71
  • References 72
  • Chapter 3 Migration in the Russian Federation Since the Mid-1980s Refugees, Immigrants, and Emigrants 77
  • Summary and Conclusions 108
  • Notes 109
  • References 111
  • Chapter 4 German Policies Toward Ethnic German Minorities 117
  • References 140
  • Chapter 5 German Policies Toward Russia and Other Successor States 141
  • Conclusion 159
  • Notes 162
  • References 163
  • Chapter 6 the New Labor Migration as an Instrument of German Foreign Policy 165
  • References 178
  • Chapter 7 Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods an Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows, 1969-1992 183
  • Conclusion 224
  • Notes 225
  • References 227
  • Chapter 8 Economic Instruments to Affect Countries of Origin 231
  • Conclusions 261
  • Notes 265
  • References 269
  • Chapter 9 Can Military Intervention Limit Refugee Flows? 273
  • Conclusion 309
  • Notes 313
  • References 319
  • Chapter 10 Conclusion - Policies to Reduce Refugee Flows and Pressures for Emigration 323
  • Conclusion 353
  • Notes 355
  • Notes on Contributors 357
  • Index 363
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