Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin

By Rainer Münz | Go to book overview

ble to discourage future aggression. Solo attempts are by no means an adequate way of preventing the emergence of violence, conflicts, displacement, and refugees.


Notes
1.
Literature on Germany's policy toward the Yugoslav crisis is still poor; however, see, for example, Axt 1993a; Heinrich 1991; Krieger 1994; MÜhlen 1992; Newhouse 1992; Rosefeldt 1993; Schoch 1993; and Wagner 1992.
2.
The latter, however, has been reduced for some time by necessities of economic and social unification.
3.
This article of the "Grundgesetz" is the essential one in regulating asylum.
4.
Both the opposition and the government restricted Germany's involvement by arguing that the constitution does not allow German participation in international missions, whether peacekeeping or peacemaking. As was demonstrated by the Constitutional Court, this decision not to participate was not in accordance with the "Grundgesetz".
5.
Specifically, 360,000 entered from Yugoslavia between 1945 and 1950 as a consequence of World War II, Yalta, and Potsdam; and 90,000 entered as Aussiedler between 1950 and 1992 ( Münz and Faßmann 1994).
6.
The Hallstein doctrine got its name from Walter Hallstein, a former deputy secretary of state. The doctrine implied that the Federal Republic of Germany was the only legitimate representative of Germany. Consequently, it was conceived as an unfriendly act when governments recognized the German Democratic Republic, and the government of the Federal Republic suspended diplomatic relations with these countries. When industrializing countries recognized the GDR, they had to be aware that Bonn would also suspend financial and economic assistance.
7.
In 1967 a (West) German embassy was opened in Romania. Diplomatic relations with Poland were established in 1972 and with (former) CSSR, Hungary, and Bulgaria in 1973.
8.
See EPC Declaration, in Europa-Archiv 1991, D 527f.
9.
See EPC Declaration, in Europa-Archiv 1992, D 118f.
10.
Negotiations on the financial protocol came late because Greece was demanding financial assistance for the improvement of the transport route "Autoput" through Yugoslavia. When the dispute with the Greeks was finally settled, a financial protocol for Yugoslavia was more than outdated because the internal conflict had already begun.
11.
The explanation given below is based on discussions with diplomats, politicians, scientists, and journalists. Many of these sources cannot be quoted.
12.
It must also be admitted that the Serbs have a "complex of genocide" ( Geiss 1992).

-27-

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Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Chapter 1 the Impact of German Policy on Refugee Flows from Former Yugoslavia 1
  • Notes 27
  • References 30
  • Chapter 2 the Impact of U.S. Policy on Migration from Mexico and the Caribbean 35
  • Notes 71
  • References 72
  • Chapter 3 Migration in the Russian Federation Since the Mid-1980s Refugees, Immigrants, and Emigrants 77
  • Summary and Conclusions 108
  • Notes 109
  • References 111
  • Chapter 4 German Policies Toward Ethnic German Minorities 117
  • References 140
  • Chapter 5 German Policies Toward Russia and Other Successor States 141
  • Conclusion 159
  • Notes 162
  • References 163
  • Chapter 6 the New Labor Migration as an Instrument of German Foreign Policy 165
  • References 178
  • Chapter 7 Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods an Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows, 1969-1992 183
  • Conclusion 224
  • Notes 225
  • References 227
  • Chapter 8 Economic Instruments to Affect Countries of Origin 231
  • Conclusions 261
  • Notes 265
  • References 269
  • Chapter 9 Can Military Intervention Limit Refugee Flows? 273
  • Conclusion 309
  • Notes 313
  • References 319
  • Chapter 10 Conclusion - Policies to Reduce Refugee Flows and Pressures for Emigration 323
  • Conclusion 353
  • Notes 355
  • Notes on Contributors 357
  • Index 363
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