Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin

By Rainer Münz | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
The migrant-sending region discussed in this essay consists of Mexico, Central America as far south as Costa Rica, the islands of the Caribbean Sea, and Guyana and Surinam, on the South American mainland. For clarity, the tables include data from the eleven most important nations of origin for migrants in this region. For variety, I will sometimes refer to the area of special interest as "the circum-Caribbean region," "the Caribbean area," and other variants.
2.
For example, Zolberg, Suhrke, and Aguayo estimate that in 1988 between 500,000 and 850,000 Salvadorans were in the United States (1989, 212), and Segundo Montes Mozo and his colleagues in the same year calculated the number as being between 988,551 and 1,042,340 (1988, 508).
3.
Quoted in Zolberg, Suhrke, and Aguayo 1989, 29. In 1984, Latin American and Caribbean nations (but not the United States) joined with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to press for adoption of a similarly broad definition of refugees, known as the "Cartagena Declaration." The United States prevented the UNHCR Executive Committee and the General Assembly of the Organization of American States from adopting this formula.
4.
Among many such statements, President Reagan argued in March 1986 that if Soviets and Cubans established in Nicaragua "move against Mexico ... desperate Latin peoples by the millions would begin fleeing north into the cities of the southern United States, or to wherever some hope of freedom remained" ( U.S. Dept. of State 1986, 1).
5.
This conjuncture follows that of the 1970s, when perceptive observers proclaimed that Latin American international autonomy was growing ( Ein audi 1974).
6.
On the nature and limits of international hegemony, see Keohane 1984, 38-46; Keohane and Nye 1977; and Gilpin 1987.

-71-

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Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Chapter 1 the Impact of German Policy on Refugee Flows from Former Yugoslavia 1
  • Notes 27
  • References 30
  • Chapter 2 the Impact of U.S. Policy on Migration from Mexico and the Caribbean 35
  • Notes 71
  • References 72
  • Chapter 3 Migration in the Russian Federation Since the Mid-1980s Refugees, Immigrants, and Emigrants 77
  • Summary and Conclusions 108
  • Notes 109
  • References 111
  • Chapter 4 German Policies Toward Ethnic German Minorities 117
  • References 140
  • Chapter 5 German Policies Toward Russia and Other Successor States 141
  • Conclusion 159
  • Notes 162
  • References 163
  • Chapter 6 the New Labor Migration as an Instrument of German Foreign Policy 165
  • References 178
  • Chapter 7 Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods an Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows, 1969-1992 183
  • Conclusion 224
  • Notes 225
  • References 227
  • Chapter 8 Economic Instruments to Affect Countries of Origin 231
  • Conclusions 261
  • Notes 265
  • References 269
  • Chapter 9 Can Military Intervention Limit Refugee Flows? 273
  • Conclusion 309
  • Notes 313
  • References 319
  • Chapter 10 Conclusion - Policies to Reduce Refugee Flows and Pressures for Emigration 323
  • Conclusion 353
  • Notes 355
  • Notes on Contributors 357
  • Index 363
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