are insufficient does not bring economic gain to his or her country but instead generally causes high costs. It is thus no economic loss when such a person emigrates. A scientist who returns from abroad after several years may represent a large gain, however, especially for a country such as Russia, which has been isolated from the international scientific community for years. The remigrant often returns with foreign know-how and access to an international science network. And it may certainly be assumed that an important proportion of the emigrant Russian scientists will return after some years abroad, when they are offered the chance to do productive work at home ( Regent 1992).
Migration flows in Russia endanger the social and economic restructuring process and the political stability of the country. Russia's political, economic, social, and ecological difficulties are amplified by the massive flows of uncontrolled immigration and emigration.
Many problems are made more acute by migration. The largest relates to the immigration and refugee movements, because Russia's ability to shelter these people is limited by all the difficulties attending the country's transformation: there are insufficient financial means to support immigrants and refugees, and adequate housing is scarce. The extremely poor living conditions of the refugees and the consequent desperate behavior (theft, begging, vagrancy, etc.) increase social and ethnic tensions as well as contempt for the new residents and eventually may encourage right-wing extremist feelings.
These problems may endanger Russia's democratic development to such a degree that not only Russia but international security in general could be threatened. For this reason, it is in the self-interest of Western countries to help Russia solve or at least moderate its migration problems. This can not be done without financial support, which must be connected to projects dealing with migration. Such projects could focus on reducing the causes of migration or handling its consequences.
Should the causes of migration be contained successfully and the migration flows limited, this would be a significant contri-