Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin

By Rainer Münz | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
This does not apply to the immigration of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and the FSU. In this paper, the special case of ethnic German immigrants will not be considered.
2.
The new Ostpolitik was started by the new coalition between social and liberal democrats in the late sixties as a more cooperative and less ideological approach toward relations with East European countries and the Soviet Union.
3.
This number includes 1.5 to 2 million after the revolution, approximately 2 million during and after World War II, and at least 1.2 million emigrants between 1950 and 1990 ( Heitman 1987, 11; Heitman 1991, 5; Stad nik 1991, 8).
4.
This refers to the "Regulations on Entry to and Exit from the USSR" of June 1959. These were reviewed in 1970 and again in 1986 but were not fundamentally amended ( Heitman 1987, 14-15).
5.
In this context, the Jackson-Vanik amendment ( 1973) played a role, impeding trade unless Jews were allowed to leave freely. In addition, the Soviet government signed the Helsinki accord ( 1975), pledging, among other things, to facilitate freer movement of its citizens.
6.
Emigrants' motives differed somewhat from group to group and changed over time. National and religious discrimination, the desire to be reunited with family, and economic and political dissatisfaction are among the most important reasons for emigration ( Zaslavsky and Brym 1983; Heitman 1987).
7.
Because of numerous internal problems, however, the law was not due to come into force until 1 January 1993 ( Zakon 1991).
8.
Jews, Germans, and Greeks are an exception because they have states abroad that accept them as citizens.
9.
The weekly German newspaper Der Spiegel noted there was "fear of a mass flight" and reported that 62 percent of West and East Germans were afraid of the hundreds and thousands of Soviet citizens who would want to leave the former Soviet Union and emigrate to the West (1991, 142).
10.
This may partly be explained by the increasing number of ethnic Germans who live in mixed marriages and come to Germany with their relatives.
11.
The inflow (outflow) statistics are based on registration forms, which document the place of residence. Obviously, these statistics are problematic in many ways. For example, some foreigners (also asylum seekers) who come to the FRG register, while others do not. In addition, some register but do not report their departure.

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Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Chapter 1 the Impact of German Policy on Refugee Flows from Former Yugoslavia 1
  • Notes 27
  • References 30
  • Chapter 2 the Impact of U.S. Policy on Migration from Mexico and the Caribbean 35
  • Notes 71
  • References 72
  • Chapter 3 Migration in the Russian Federation Since the Mid-1980s Refugees, Immigrants, and Emigrants 77
  • Summary and Conclusions 108
  • Notes 109
  • References 111
  • Chapter 4 German Policies Toward Ethnic German Minorities 117
  • References 140
  • Chapter 5 German Policies Toward Russia and Other Successor States 141
  • Conclusion 159
  • Notes 162
  • References 163
  • Chapter 6 the New Labor Migration as an Instrument of German Foreign Policy 165
  • References 178
  • Chapter 7 Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods an Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows, 1969-1992 183
  • Conclusion 224
  • Notes 225
  • References 227
  • Chapter 8 Economic Instruments to Affect Countries of Origin 231
  • Conclusions 261
  • Notes 265
  • References 269
  • Chapter 9 Can Military Intervention Limit Refugee Flows? 273
  • Conclusion 309
  • Notes 313
  • References 319
  • Chapter 10 Conclusion - Policies to Reduce Refugee Flows and Pressures for Emigration 323
  • Conclusion 353
  • Notes 355
  • Notes on Contributors 357
  • Index 363
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