Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin

By Rainer Münz | Go to book overview

Conclusion

For the remainder of this century and beyond, governments and international institutions will wrestle with the problem of how to prevent or resolve conflicts that generate refugee flows. Global television has made us all witnesses to events that, in the past, might have gone unnoticed. Governments and citizens can no longer shrug off civil wars, massacres, and human rights violations as events in faraway countries about which they know nothing.

Furthermore, national self-interests are at stake if there is reason to expect a large influx of refugees and asylum seekers, or if there is a high probability that the internal conflict will result in a wider regional war. In foreign policy making the classic security dilemma is that the steps taken by a government to provide for its security may be construed by others as hostile, thereby provoking a response that leaves both sides less secure. The refugee crisis and the attempt to address conflicts within states pose two new security dilemmas. The first is that steps taken by the government of a refugee-receiving country to change the conditions within a refugee-generating country may provoke the latter government (or its opponents) to respond in ways that further increase the insecurity of the former. For example, the French government's involvement in the Algerian crisis, motivated by a desire to prevent a massive exodus from Algeria to France, may provoke Islamists to launch terrorist attacks within France. The second dilemma is that intervention in another country's conflicts may become a highly divisive and destabilizing domestic political issue: because it is often unclear whether there is a threat to national security, because the costs of intervention may be high and unpredictable, and because there is usually uncertainty about whether the government can have any influence over the conflict.

Notwithstanding these constraints, the fundamental policy question for governments and international institutions still remains: what can be done to provide protection to a threatened people within their own countries so they need not cross international borders?

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Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Chapter 1 the Impact of German Policy on Refugee Flows from Former Yugoslavia 1
  • Notes 27
  • References 30
  • Chapter 2 the Impact of U.S. Policy on Migration from Mexico and the Caribbean 35
  • Notes 71
  • References 72
  • Chapter 3 Migration in the Russian Federation Since the Mid-1980s Refugees, Immigrants, and Emigrants 77
  • Summary and Conclusions 108
  • Notes 109
  • References 111
  • Chapter 4 German Policies Toward Ethnic German Minorities 117
  • References 140
  • Chapter 5 German Policies Toward Russia and Other Successor States 141
  • Conclusion 159
  • Notes 162
  • References 163
  • Chapter 6 the New Labor Migration as an Instrument of German Foreign Policy 165
  • References 178
  • Chapter 7 Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods an Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows, 1969-1992 183
  • Conclusion 224
  • Notes 225
  • References 227
  • Chapter 8 Economic Instruments to Affect Countries of Origin 231
  • Conclusions 261
  • Notes 265
  • References 269
  • Chapter 9 Can Military Intervention Limit Refugee Flows? 273
  • Conclusion 309
  • Notes 313
  • References 319
  • Chapter 10 Conclusion - Policies to Reduce Refugee Flows and Pressures for Emigration 323
  • Conclusion 353
  • Notes 355
  • Notes on Contributors 357
  • Index 363
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