costs of humanitarian intervention. Alternatively, they might just wait until the rescuers depart.
This survey of the issues surrounding military intervention designed to affect the production of refugees constitutes a conceptual map of the issue. I have elucidated some stylized military causes of refugee flows: genocide/politicide, ethnic cleansing, repressive conquerors or repressive regimes, the dangerous environment of war, and the impoverishment caused by primitive armies that live off the land. I have also developed some archetypal military remedies for refugee problems: strategic bombing, safe zones, safe havens, enforced peace, and a full- scale war against assailant groups or states. With the exception of full-scale war, the remedies proposed are temporary expedients. They reduce hardship and save lives, but they do not solve the original political problems that produced the violence that produced the refugees. I did not offer a detailed analysis of the last remedy, because it falls under the purview of traditional strategic studies, and plenty has been written on the subject. It is probably true, however, that a full-scale war is the best military answer to refugees produced by cruel occupations or highly repressive indigenous regimes.
Relying on the theory of military compellence, I have elucidated some of the difficulties that will arise in trying to affect the political circumstances that produce refugees. Because I view the problem as one of conventional compellence, I deduce that the military requirements for success in any of these endeavors are substantial. Though any military strategist would echo Clausewitz's admonition that it is best to be very strong, particularly at the decisive point, this is particularly true for conventional compellence. Moreover, it will probably be necessary to use this force, and do so repeatedly. Therefore, I have reviewed the four military remedies in terms of their military logic and their tactical and logistical requirements.
Definitive conclusions are difficult without a more systematic effort to study the universe of cases of interventions that sought humanitarian goals in whole or in part. And given the wide