Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin

By Rainer Münz | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
For a comprehensive introduction see Weiner 1995. See also UNHCR 1995; UNHCR 1993; and Loescher 1992.
2.
Article 2 of the genocide treaty offers such a broad definition that virtually any political violence directed against a "national, ethnical, racial or religious group" qualifies as genocide. While the ethical intent is laudable, it is unlikely that most states will act according to such an expansive definition.
3.
As in the analysis of war, where one finds distinctions among light, medium, and heavy casualties, the analysis of political killing of unarmed civilians requires rough distinctions in the scale of death. Even in a world where civilian deaths have been measured in the hundreds of thousands, the killing of tens of thousands or even thousands may be sufficient to induce mass flight.
4.
The initial flow of refugees from the Pakistani crackdown consisted of Bengali Muslims, but the composition quickly shifted to 80 percent Hindu. See also Jackson ( 1975, 75-76), who concurs with the suspicions of Indian officials. By June nearly seven million refugees had reached India.
5.
See Zayas 1977 (104), in which he writes, "Transports into the Western zones in the summers of 1946 and 1947 were relatively organized and gave rise to considerably fewer casualties." Elsewhere he notes, "If there had been no 'organized transfers' and if all the Germans had been expelled in the brutal manner that characterized the 1945 expulsions, the loss of life attributable to the flight and expulsion would not have been 2 million but perhaps 3 million or even more" (124). See also Zayas 1994, 113-16.
6.
The opposite can happen. Apparently, during Desert Storm, civilians occasionally moved toward the sights and sounds of battle because that was the best way to find the coalition troops who might be prevailed upon for protection or sustenance.
7.
In his memoir of service in Vietnam, Tobias Wolff writes, "You could never have too many mines. Fifty thousand wouldn't have been too many for me. Given the chance, I'd have lived smack in the middle of a minefield twenty miles wide" (1994, 17).
8.
See especially McGrath 1994, 126 and app. 3. "In some areas virtually all mountain grazing land was remotely mined and the whole agricultural infrastructure brought to a halt by the widespread mining" (156).
9.
A variant on this solution would be to arm the victims so extensively that they could repel the side whose actions had precipitated or were about to precipitate mass flight. The practical question is whether or not military assistance can be delivered quickly enough to affect the actions that produce refugees. Generally, the provision of weapons alone is unlikely to prove an expeditious solution to refugee problems, in that the victims are probably in trouble because their military organization is weak or nonexistent. Weapons alone do not an army make.
10.
See Durch 1993b, 327, 333, on the first eleven months of the UN effort in the Congo; on Lebanon, see Ghali 1993, 199-200. See also United Nations 1990, on ONUC (226-29) and on UNIFIL (143-46).
11.
See Durch 1993a, 315-52. Special Representative Dayal called it "massive intervention in the guise of non-intervention" (346).

-313-

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Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Chapter 1 the Impact of German Policy on Refugee Flows from Former Yugoslavia 1
  • Notes 27
  • References 30
  • Chapter 2 the Impact of U.S. Policy on Migration from Mexico and the Caribbean 35
  • Notes 71
  • References 72
  • Chapter 3 Migration in the Russian Federation Since the Mid-1980s Refugees, Immigrants, and Emigrants 77
  • Summary and Conclusions 108
  • Notes 109
  • References 111
  • Chapter 4 German Policies Toward Ethnic German Minorities 117
  • References 140
  • Chapter 5 German Policies Toward Russia and Other Successor States 141
  • Conclusion 159
  • Notes 162
  • References 163
  • Chapter 6 the New Labor Migration as an Instrument of German Foreign Policy 165
  • References 178
  • Chapter 7 Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods an Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows, 1969-1992 183
  • Conclusion 224
  • Notes 225
  • References 227
  • Chapter 8 Economic Instruments to Affect Countries of Origin 231
  • Conclusions 261
  • Notes 265
  • References 269
  • Chapter 9 Can Military Intervention Limit Refugee Flows? 273
  • Conclusion 309
  • Notes 313
  • References 319
  • Chapter 10 Conclusion - Policies to Reduce Refugee Flows and Pressures for Emigration 323
  • Conclusion 353
  • Notes 355
  • Notes on Contributors 357
  • Index 363
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