Ideas and Men: The Story of Western Thought

By Crane Brinton | Go to book overview

CHAPTER TWELVE
THE NINETEENTH CENTURY II. ATTACKS FROM RIGHT AND LEFT The Role of Intellectuals

The nineteenth century sees the full development of a change in the sources of livelihood of that very important part of the intellectual classes, the writers; and it sees the final touches in the process of making the characteristic modern group we call the intellectuals. Both these topics must receive attention in any intellectual history of the West.

From the days of the Greeks to early modern times writers of all sorts, poets and storytellers and scholars, had either to have income from their own property, or to be subsidized by rich patrons, like the Roman Maecenas; by the state, as with the Attic dramatists; or by an institution such as a monastic order. They could directly "sell" their talents to consumers only rarely, and then as sophists or lecturers in the ancient world, as troubadours in the medieval, directly confronting their audience. With the invention of printing in the fifteenth century there came gradually to be a large enough market for books, so that slowly authors and publishers were able to work out a copyright system, and the writer became a licensed merchant selling his product in collaboration with a publisher who took much of the commercial risk. There came also to be a periodical and by the eighteenth century a newspaper -- press for which the writer worked for pay, sometimes on salary, sometimes at piecework rates. The eighteenth century is here a period of transition. Copyright is imperfect, patrons are still important, and journalism hardly offers prizes even for its most successful practitioners. The English "Grub Street" remains a set phrase for the struggling proletariat of the written word. Yet there grew up notably in England and in France a group of men who lived, however badly, by selling in a true market what they wrote. Although Defoe had done very well with Robinson Crusoe and other writings, Sir Walter Scott is perhaps the first man to make a fortune from his pen, which like Mark Twain later he proceeded to lose by un-

-349-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Ideas and Men: The Story of Western Thought
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 486

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.