Impoverishment, Resistance and
P ast research on the impacts of river-basin development on local populations has concentrated on those undergoing relocation. Where used, the term 'hosts' refers to those who host the relocatees rather than to those who 'host' the project. Similarly the phrase 'project-impacted people' or 'project-affected people' (PAPs), which is prominent in the literature on India, refers primarily to those who must undergo resettlement. This narrow vision has tended to obscure the fact that often those undergoing removal and their hosts are a minority of those who subsequently may be impoverished by a particular development intervention. Yet even where they constitute a majority, project-impacted people who are not relocatees, hosts or immigrants have been largely ignored by academics, planners, donors and non-governmental agencies alike.
In this chapter, I will use the term project-impacted people to include four major categories. These are a) those whose relocation is required (called relocatees for short); b) those among whom they are resettled (hereafter referred to as hosts); c) all other river-basin residents who are neither hosts nor relocatees (PAPs in this paper); and d) immigrants. Immigrants will not be dealt with in any detail since they, of the four categories, are most apt to be project beneficiaries.